Internships are essential parts of quality sport management education, enabling students to link the classroom - professional environments through observation, exploration, and participation. Given the significance of the internship experience, it is important to determine if all students have the same opportunities for learning. The purpose of this study was to describe working (i.e., learning conditions) for female and male sport management interns working in college sport. Participants were collegiate athletics administrators (N = 257) who provided information on seven aspects of students’ (N = 379) internship experiences. A Chi Square model found differences (p = <.05) favoring males in intern selection, employment status, and salary, as well as job assignments in sports information, corporate sales, and compliance. In addition, female interns performed more clerical duties than males. Supervisor gender was a significant factor in some cases. It was concluded that biases favoring males exist in many facets of collegiate internships.
Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell
Marshall Magnusen and Pamela L. Perrewé
The concept of social effectiveness tends to be explained in terms of individual’s ability to identify, comprehend, and attain effective social networks that can produce advantageous career and life outcomes. Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that a strong connection between social effectiveness and leadership effectiveness exists. However, while most undergraduate and graduate sport management skills textbooks include a chapter or several chapters about leadership, few devote more than several pages to social effectiveness constructs. Contemporary sport pedagogy articles about teaching leadership also do not explore the important connection between social effectiveness and leadership adequately. Therefore, given the salience of social effectiveness to leadership as well as the need for more complete investigations of the manner by which leaders engage in effective leadership behaviors, the present review critically examines social effectiveness as a means to successful sport leadership and proposes specific pedagogical practices for sport management educators.
Catherine Quatman and Packianathan Chelladurai
The works of Kuhn (1996) and other scholars on the social construction of knowledge suggest that great insight can be gained about an academic field of study by investigating interaction patterns between and among scholars. Using a social network perspective, the intent of this study was to empirically explore the social interaction patterns among scholars in the field of sport management. A network model of coauthorship was generated using several rounds of sampling of scholars in the field and archival data collection from relevant journals. The derived network structure was then explored both visually and quantitatively for meaningful patterns. The results of the study essentially tell a story of the evolution and current state of the field’s collaboration structure. Drawing on propositions from the literature on the sociology of scientific knowledge generation, the findings are discussed relative to what the obtained network structure might hold for sport management scholarship.
W. James Weese
Many people have suggested that management theorists have become overly theoretical and frequently neglect to provide practitioners with the meaningful implications of their research findings. Acclaimed management scientist Henry Mintzberg expressed the same concerns for the leadership field of study. The North American Society for Sport Management could learn from the history and experiences of the management science/leadership fields and provide both academics and practitioners with research that both advances the field and impacts the profession.
Michael B. Edwards and Jon Welty Peachey
Throughout sport management’s history, scholars have wrestled with the discipline’s appropriate home within the academy. Sport management programs are often placed within other departments or schools, with one potential home being established parks and recreation management departments. However, one of the most prevalent issues within the parks and recreation academic field is the perceived invasion of sport management into its “nest.” In a recent article in the field’s leading education journal, a prominent scholar suggests that parks and recreation programs housing sport management run the risk of undermining their mission and may ultimately face extinction. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to offer a response to this article, and examine the position of sport management within traditional parks and recreation departments. We argue that because of the interrelatedness of the disciplines and shared ontological and epistemological roots, fostering collaboration rather than divisiveness would enhance the scholarship, academic integrity and student learning outcomes of both fields.
Critical social science is an underused paradigm in sport management. It can, however, help reveal the bad and ugly sides of sport, so we can uncover new ways to promote the good sides of it. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the relevance of this paradigm for sport management teaching, practice, and research. A key assumption of the critical paradigm is that organizations are best viewed as operating in a wider cultural, economic, and political context characterized by asymmetrical power relations that are historically entrenched. Research is not neutral because the goal is to promote social change by challenging dominant ways of thinking and acting that benefit those in power. Conducting critical sport management research requires a specific skill set and adequate training is essential. Drawing on the work of Alvesson and Deetz (2000), the three tasks required to conduct critical social science are insight, critique, and transformative redefinition. These tasks are described and a number of sport-related examples are provided.
Ketra L. Armstrong
This essay provides a general introduction to and foundation for the scholarly explorations of how race and ethnicity impact Sport Management. Briefly discussed are the changing portraits of racial and ethnic demography, the conceptual treatments of race and ethnicity, and the methodological challenges and research imperatives. This essay also offers a brief summary of the trends in research on race and ethnicity in Sport Management, and it provides an integrated overview of the scholarship featured in this Special Issue which (in varied ways) explicate the salience of race and ethnicity to Sport Management practices, and to the experiences of sport employees, athletes, and sport marketing and media consumers.
Jed Friend and Arnold LeUnes
Recently the issue of fairness in the recruitment, selection, and placement aspects of personnel management for professional baseball teams has been questioned. The only seemingly correct solution to the lack of minorities in sport management positions has been oriented toward developing and implementing affirmative action programs. This paper discusses an approach to affirmative action that emphasizes (a) job analysis, (b) job descriptions, and (c) prediction of managerial performance. It therefore serves as a caveat for those organizations that feel an adequate affirmative action policy, as a single entity, is the proper remedy for correcting past discriminatory hiring decisions.
George B. Cunningham, Michael Sagas, Marlene Dixon, Aubrey Kent and Brian A. Turner
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of internships on students’ career-related affect and intentions. Data were gathered from 138 upper-level undergraduate sport management students (71 interns, 67 noninterns). A doubly multivariate repeated measures model indicated that, although they did not differ at the beginning of the internship, interns had less positive attitudes toward the profession than did noninterns at the end of the internship. Structural equation modeling indicated that affective occupational commitment fully mediated the relationship between anticipated career satisfaction and intentions to enter the profession. The results contribute to the extant literature by demonstrating that internships can influence career-related affect and intentions.
Ron A. Thompson
While college women in general are at risk for anorexia nervosa and bulimia, these disorders may present more of a problem for the student-athlete due to her weight/body consciousness and the pressure associated with athletic competition at the college or university level. This paper discusses the physical and psychological characteristics of each disorder, their etiology, and how each affects the life and performance of the athlete. Recommendations are offered regarding the role of the sport management team (i.e., sport psychologist, team physician, coach, athletic trainer, exercise physiologist) in assisting the eating-disordered athlete.