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Sarah J. Willis, Jules Gellaerts, Benoît Mariani, Patrick Basset, Fabio Borrani and Grégoire P. Millet

 = 165–187 mLO 2 ·kg −1 ·km −1 in the best marathon runners 5 ), it remains under debate as a primary determinant of performance in ultradistance, 6 , 7 especially in mountain environments. Several specific determinants of ultratrail performance have been reported: maximal sustainable power, energy

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Jason C. Bartram, Dominic Thewlis, David T. Martin and Kevin I. Norton

of W ′ up until its depletion—coinciding with volitional exhaustion. The concept’s strengths, therefore, include an ability to identify a sustainable work rate without invasive measurement, and an ability to accurately develop pacing approaches for one-off work bouts when working above this rate

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Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

statement summarizes these issues and the nutrition and hydration strategies with which they can be addressed. Physiological Effects of Exertional Heat Stress Thermoregulation During exercise, high body temperatures arise from excess heat storage due to sustained imbalance between internal heat production

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Gareth N. Sandford, Simon A. Rogers, Avish P. Sharma, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross and Paul B. Laursen

30 seconds peak of VO 2 and then identifying the speed at which the first 15 seconds of that peak occurred. If an athlete achieved VO 2 peak during a stage that was not sustained for 1 minute, vVO 2 max was calculated in a pro rata manner. 9 vVO 2 max Estimation From 1500-m Race Time The 1500 v was

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Edgar J. Gallardo and Andrew R. Coggan

blood pressure. This is presumably due to the lower dose of NO 3 − provided (i.e., ∼1 vs. ∼6 mmol), which failed to sustain the initial elevation in NO 2 − . In summary, we have measured the NO 3 − and NO 2 − concentration and hence content of numerous BRJ supplements. Our data reveal marked

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Mehdi Kordi, Campbell Menzies and Andy Galbraith

the highest sustainable running speed that can be maintained without a continual rise in VO 2 . 6 It has been reported to demarcate the boundary between the heavy and severe exercise intensity domains and is correlated with maximum lactate steady state and VO 2 max. 3 , 4 , 7 D ′ has been described

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Ben Desbrow, Katelyn Barnes, Gregory R. Cox, Elizaveta Iudakhina, Danielle McCartney, Sierra Skepper, Caroline Young and Chris Irwin

; Armstrong et al., 1994 ). Immediately prior to commencing the run, participants self-reported their thirst and hunger (10-point scales) and recorded a nude BM. Experimental Procedures Participants were encouraged to complete the 10-km run at a sustainable pace able to be replicated in both trials. A

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

published since the previous consensus, and reference is made to other articles published in this series to reduce redundancy. Determinants of Sprint Performance Sprint performance is determined primarily by reaction time, acceleration, maximum running velocity, and the ability to sustain this in the

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker

unlikely to be sustainable and may reflect underreporting in the dietary assessment, which is common with a food record especially if food is consumed frequently with snacks not being recorded. Alternatively, there could have been an overassessment in energy expended, especially as the study reported an

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

are superior to omnivorous diets for improving athletic training, health, or performance. Fasting Diets Fasting is characterized by the absence of energy intake for sustained period of time ranging from several hours to days ( Maughan et al., 2010 ). It is not a new concept, but an age-old practice