The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the progressive time delay (PTD) procedure on teaching gross motor skills to adult males with severe mental retardation. A multiple probe design across three skills and replicated across 4 participants was utilized. Results indicated that a PTD procedure with a 0 to 5 s delay was effective in teaching 4 participants three gross motor skills (tee-ball batting, softball pitching, croquet striking) over a period of 13 weeks. Data on effectiveness were analyzed in terms of the number of instructional sessions (M = 9.58), the number of trials (M = 105.41), the number of min (M = 84.66), and the number of performing errors to criterion (M = 4.08%). A maintenance level (M = 96.87%) was also determined across 4 participants and three skills on the 1st, 4th, 14th, and 24th sessions after terminating the PTD instruction.
Shihui Chen, Ernest Lange, Paul Miko, Jiabei Zhang and Daniel Joseph
David Kirk and Ann MacPhail
Bunker and Thorpe first proposed Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) in 1982 as an alternative to traditional, technique-led approaches to games teaching and learning. Despite interest from teachers and researchers, there has been no attempt to review the TGfU model. This is an oversight, given the important advances in educational learning theory and ecological approaches to motor control since the early 1980s. The purpose of this paper is to present a new version of the TGfU model that draws on a situated learning perspective. The paper describes the TGfU approach, overviews recent research on TGfU, and outlines a situated learning perspective. This perspective is then applied to rethinking the TGfU model. The intended outcome of the paper is the provision a more robust and sophisticated version of the TGfU model that can inform future directions in the practice of and research on TGfU.
Danielle D. Wadsworth, Mary E. Rudisill, Jared A. Russell, James R. McDonald and David D. Pascoe
The School of Kinesiology at Auburn University unites teaching, research, and outreach efforts to provide access to physical activity for local, statewide, and global communities. This paper provides a brief overview of the programs as well as strategies to mobilize efforts for physical activity outreach within an academic setting. School-wide efforts include youth initiatives, physical activity assessments offered through our TigerFit program, and the United States Olympic Team Handball training center. All programs provide service-learning opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students as well as outreach outcomes. Furthermore, the programs provide a platform for scholarship in the form of publications, partnerships for grant submissions, and student research projects. Merging teaching, outreach, and scholarship has provided longevity for the programs, thereby establishing long-term social ties to the community and providing continued access to physical activity to promote public health.
Thomas Wandzilak, Ronald J. Bonnstetter and Lynn L. Mortensen
In order for university professors to become more effective at the practice of teaching, they must be provided with accurate, multidimensional feedback on what transpires in their own classes. The Teaching Feedback Model (TFM) is a process that combines the systematic observation of student and teacher behaviors with an analysis of student learning. Based on information provided by the coding of videotaped classroom episodes through a computer program and student learning data, a profile is constructed that informs the teacher whether continuity exists among what is supposed to occur (planning), what actually occurs (doing), and what the student has gained from the class (learning). The purpose of this paper is to present this model in detail and to demonstrate how it is currently being used in college-level physical education theory classes.
Sandra L. Gibbons and Vicki Ebbeck
This study examined the effectiveness of social learning (SL) or structural developmental (SD) teaching strategies on the moral development of elementary-age students. Participants were 204 physical education students in Grades 4,5, and 6; three classrooms in each grade were randomly assigned to control, SL, or SD groups. Self-report measures assessed moral judgment, reason, and intention; teachers rated prosocial behavior. By mid- and postintervention class-level analyses, the SL and SD groups scored significantly higher than the control on moral judgment and/or intention; by postintervention, the SD group was significantly higher on moral reason. Mid- and postintervention student-level analyses showed that the SL and SD groups scored significantly higher on moral judgment, intention, and behavior; the SD group was significantly higher on moral reason. These results provide support for the effectiveness of both social learning and structural-developmental teaching strategies on the moral development of children in physical education.
Timothy J.L. Chandler, Stacey L. Lane, Janice M. Bibik and Bernard Oliver
Recent concern over the quality of teachers staffing the nation’s schools has prompted widespread development of educational reform packages designed to improve the teaching profession. Stemming from this effort has been the notion that a teaching career must be structured as a career ladder, progressing from informal elementary instructional tasks to full-time responsibilities in the gymnasium. In this paper we discuss some of the assumptions underlying career ladders in order to highlight their strengths and, more particularly, their weaknesses. We suggest that career ladders address not the true needs of teachers but rather the evaluation needs of administrators. As such, career ladders are not a good means of promoting teacher development. We offer the notion of the career lattice as an alternative means of meeting the motivational needs of teachers.
Charles H. Imwold, Robert A. Rider, Bernadette M. Twardy, Pamela S. Oliver, Michael Griffin and Donald N. Arsenault
The purpose of this study was to compare the teaching process interaction behavior of teachers who planned for classes with those who did not plan. Senior physical education majors served as the teaching subjects for this study—six in the planning (experimental) group and six in the no-plan (control) group. Each teacher taught the same lesson content for a 15-minute episode. The planning group spent 1 hour before the lesson writing explicit plans, while the control group was given 2 minutes just before the lesson to gather their thoughts and be informed of the content to be covered. The behaviors of all teachers were observed by the Cheffers Adaptation of the Flanders’ Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS). The results indicated significant differences in only two interaction categories: amount of directions given and the amount of silence. Both variables were better for the planning group.
Okseon Lee and Euichang Choi
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a professional development (PD) program on teachers’ implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, and to identify the characteristics of PD that influence teaching practice. The participants were six elementary school teachers and 12 students, and the data were collected from interviews with the teachers and students, observations, and teachers’ reflective journal entries. The findings revealed that PD enhanced the fidelity of implementation in terms of improving structural adherence, facilitating coherent instructional delivery, and making the students more active and responsible. The PD also helped the teachers to adapt the model by developing cultural differentiation strategies, modifying existing components, and extending the implementation of the TPSR through connection with other subjects or activities. The teachers found that the PD facilitated their implementation of TPSR by giving them common goals, empowering them as creators of knowledge, and providing a continuous and authentic learning experience.
Stephen Silverman and Ronald Skonie
The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and analyze published research on teaching in physical education. (RT-PE). An exhaustive search was performed to identify RT-PE since 1980. Over 2,700 papers were reviewed, and 179 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Each paper was categorized to obtain detailed information on focus, design, and publication outlet. The results indicated that most RT-PE focused on teacher effectiveness and was quantitative. While much of the research met the minimum demands of good research in the area, some research clearly could be improved. In addition, the Journal of Teaching Physical Education was the major outlet for the research and various other trends were found about publication outlets.
Paul G. Schempp
An analysis of student teaching was made to determine how student teachers defined becoming a better teacher based on their actual teaching experiences in the gymnasium. Specifically, two definitions were derived from experiences the subjects identified as indicative of either progress or no progress in becoming a better teacher. A critical incident technique was employed to collect and analyze data from 20 student teachers. Data were collected in the second, sixth, and ninth weeks of a 10-week experience. Reliability of data was established by comparing exact agreements between the investigator and five impartial judges. The results of this study suggested the student teachers defined a better teacher through experiences in which a teacher-planned lesson activity was felt to have worked due to the entire class responding to the teacher’s efforts with appropriate social behavior. Incidents not indicative of a better teacher were those whereby the student teachers felt an activity they tried did not work, resulting in wasted time and inappropriate social behavior by the entire class. Further, it was found these definitions did not change throughout the student teaching experience.