The purpose of this study was to compare the teaching process interaction behavior of teachers who planned for classes with those who did not plan. Senior physical education majors served as the teaching subjects for this study—six in the planning (experimental) group and six in the no-plan (control) group. Each teacher taught the same lesson content for a 15-minute episode. The planning group spent 1 hour before the lesson writing explicit plans, while the control group was given 2 minutes just before the lesson to gather their thoughts and be informed of the content to be covered. The behaviors of all teachers were observed by the Cheffers Adaptation of the Flanders’ Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS). The results indicated significant differences in only two interaction categories: amount of directions given and the amount of silence. Both variables were better for the planning group.
Charles H. Imwold, Robert A. Rider, Bernadette M. Twardy, Pamela S. Oliver, Michael Griffin and Donald N. Arsenault
Timothy J.L. Chandler, Stacey L. Lane, Janice M. Bibik and Bernard Oliver
Recent concern over the quality of teachers staffing the nation’s schools has prompted widespread development of educational reform packages designed to improve the teaching profession. Stemming from this effort has been the notion that a teaching career must be structured as a career ladder, progressing from informal elementary instructional tasks to full-time responsibilities in the gymnasium. In this paper we discuss some of the assumptions underlying career ladders in order to highlight their strengths and, more particularly, their weaknesses. We suggest that career ladders address not the true needs of teachers but rather the evaluation needs of administrators. As such, career ladders are not a good means of promoting teacher development. We offer the notion of the career lattice as an alternative means of meeting the motivational needs of teachers.
Danielle D. Wadsworth, Mary E. Rudisill, Jared A. Russell, James R. McDonald and David D. Pascoe
The School of Kinesiology at Auburn University unites teaching, research, and outreach efforts to provide access to physical activity for local, statewide, and global communities. This paper provides a brief overview of the programs as well as strategies to mobilize efforts for physical activity outreach within an academic setting. School-wide efforts include youth initiatives, physical activity assessments offered through our TigerFit program, and the United States Olympic Team Handball training center. All programs provide service-learning opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students as well as outreach outcomes. Furthermore, the programs provide a platform for scholarship in the form of publications, partnerships for grant submissions, and student research projects. Merging teaching, outreach, and scholarship has provided longevity for the programs, thereby establishing long-term social ties to the community and providing continued access to physical activity to promote public health.
Okseon Lee and Euichang Choi
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a professional development (PD) program on teachers’ implementation of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model, and to identify the characteristics of PD that influence teaching practice. The participants were six elementary school teachers and 12 students, and the data were collected from interviews with the teachers and students, observations, and teachers’ reflective journal entries. The findings revealed that PD enhanced the fidelity of implementation in terms of improving structural adherence, facilitating coherent instructional delivery, and making the students more active and responsible. The PD also helped the teachers to adapt the model by developing cultural differentiation strategies, modifying existing components, and extending the implementation of the TPSR through connection with other subjects or activities. The teachers found that the PD facilitated their implementation of TPSR by giving them common goals, empowering them as creators of knowledge, and providing a continuous and authentic learning experience.
Stephen Silverman and Ronald Skonie
The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and analyze published research on teaching in physical education. (RT-PE). An exhaustive search was performed to identify RT-PE since 1980. Over 2,700 papers were reviewed, and 179 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Each paper was categorized to obtain detailed information on focus, design, and publication outlet. The results indicated that most RT-PE focused on teacher effectiveness and was quantitative. While much of the research met the minimum demands of good research in the area, some research clearly could be improved. In addition, the Journal of Teaching Physical Education was the major outlet for the research and various other trends were found about publication outlets.
Sandra L. Gibbons and Vicki Ebbeck
This study examined the effectiveness of social learning (SL) or structural developmental (SD) teaching strategies on the moral development of elementary-age students. Participants were 204 physical education students in Grades 4,5, and 6; three classrooms in each grade were randomly assigned to control, SL, or SD groups. Self-report measures assessed moral judgment, reason, and intention; teachers rated prosocial behavior. By mid- and postintervention class-level analyses, the SL and SD groups scored significantly higher than the control on moral judgment and/or intention; by postintervention, the SD group was significantly higher on moral reason. Mid- and postintervention student-level analyses showed that the SL and SD groups scored significantly higher on moral judgment, intention, and behavior; the SD group was significantly higher on moral reason. These results provide support for the effectiveness of both social learning and structural-developmental teaching strategies on the moral development of children in physical education.
Thomas Wandzilak, Ronald J. Bonnstetter and Lynn L. Mortensen
In order for university professors to become more effective at the practice of teaching, they must be provided with accurate, multidimensional feedback on what transpires in their own classes. The Teaching Feedback Model (TFM) is a process that combines the systematic observation of student and teacher behaviors with an analysis of student learning. Based on information provided by the coding of videotaped classroom episodes through a computer program and student learning data, a profile is constructed that informs the teacher whether continuity exists among what is supposed to occur (planning), what actually occurs (doing), and what the student has gained from the class (learning). The purpose of this paper is to present this model in detail and to demonstrate how it is currently being used in college-level physical education theory classes.
Gordon A. Bloom, Rebecca Crumpton and Jenise E. Anderson
A systematic observation analysis was performed on Fresno State men’s basketball coach Jerry Tarkanian over the course of an entire season. Based on Tharp and Gallimore’s (1976) work and recent research on expert coaches’ training techniques (Côté et al., 1995; Durand-Bush, 1996), the Revised Coaching Behavior Recording Form was created to observe and record Tarkanian’s teaching behaviors and verbal cues. Results showed that tactical instructions was the most frequently occurring variable, representing 29% of the coded behaviors. This behavior was 13% higher than the second highest variable, hustles (16%). Following these two categories were technical instruction (13.9%), praise\encouragement (13.6%), general instructions (12%), scolds (6%), and six other categories with percentages less than 3%. This means that almost one-third of Coach Tarkanian’s practice behaviors relate to teaching offensive and defensive strategies to his team. This differs from the practice sessions of beginner- and intermediate-level coaches, who often focus on teaching fundamental skills to their athletes. A complete description of all 12 categories are provided along with implications for coaches of all levels.
Paul G. Schempp
An analysis of student teaching was made to determine how student teachers defined becoming a better teacher based on their actual teaching experiences in the gymnasium. Specifically, two definitions were derived from experiences the subjects identified as indicative of either progress or no progress in becoming a better teacher. A critical incident technique was employed to collect and analyze data from 20 student teachers. Data were collected in the second, sixth, and ninth weeks of a 10-week experience. Reliability of data was established by comparing exact agreements between the investigator and five impartial judges. The results of this study suggested the student teachers defined a better teacher through experiences in which a teacher-planned lesson activity was felt to have worked due to the entire class responding to the teacher’s efforts with appropriate social behavior. Incidents not indicative of a better teacher were those whereby the student teachers felt an activity they tried did not work, resulting in wasted time and inappropriate social behavior by the entire class. Further, it was found these definitions did not change throughout the student teaching experience.
Nell Faucette, Thomas L. McKenzie and James F. Sallis
A primary purpose of this study was to describe differences between self-contained and team teaching approaches when two groups of fourth- and fifth-grade classroom teachers attempted to implement a physical education curriculum during a 4-month in-service program. One school featured team teaching in pairs during physical education classes; the other used a self-contained teaching approach. The program required a minimum of three 30-min physical education classes weekly. All teachers participated in an extensive in-service training program that included weekly on-site assistance. Data collection included teachers’ lesson-completion forms, specialist’s reports, SOFIT PE class observations, teacher-completed Stages of Concern questionnaires, and teachers’ formal interviews. Results indicated that classroom teachers who used the self-contained model more consistently implemented the curriculum and more frequently expressed positive responses. Participants who used the team model for the physical education curriculum frequently strayed from the assigned pedagogical approach, ignored major portions of the program, and experienced extreme management concerns.