practitioners should think carefully about the selection of a valid, safe, and time-efficient measure of maximal strength. The use of the isometric midthigh pull offers a method of maximal-strength assessment that meets the aforementioned criteria. 11 – 13 The midthigh pull requires participants to stand on a
Nick Dobbin, Richard Hunwicks, Ben Jones, Kevin Till, Jamie Highton and Craig Twist
Randall J. Bergman, Justin W. Spellman, Michael E. Hall and Shawn M. Bergman
This study examined the validity of a selected free pedometer application (iPedometer; IP) for the iPhone that could be used to assess physical activity.
Twenty college students (10 men, 10 women; mean age: 21.85 ± 1.57 yrs) wore an iPhone at 3 locations (pocket, waist, arm) and a StepWatch 3 Step Activity Monitor (SW) on their right ankle while walking on a treadmill at 5 different speeds (54, 67, 80, 94, 107 m·min−1). A research assistant counted steps with a tally counter (TC).
Statistical significance between the TC, SW, and IP was found during every condition except IP in the pocket at 107 m·min−1 (F 2,38 = .64, P = .54). Correlations involving the IP revealed only 1 positive correlation (IP on arm at 54 m·min−1) for any of the conditions (r = .46, P = .05).
The IP application was not accurate in counting steps and recorded significantly lower step counts than the SW and TC. Thus, the free pedometer application used is not a valid instrument for monitoring activity during treadmill walking.
Jason S. Scibek and Christopher R. Carcia
The purpose of our study was to establish criterion-related validity and repeatability of a shoulder biomechanics testing protocol involving an electromagnetic tracking system (Flock of Birds [FoB]). Eleven subjects completed humeral elevation tasks in the sagittal, scapular, and frontal planes on two occasions. Shoulder kinematics were assessed with a digital inclinometer and the FoB. Intrasession and intersession repeatability for orthopedic angles, and humeral and scapular kinematics ranged from moderate to excellent. Correlation analyses revealed strong relationships between inclinometer and FoB measures of humeral motion, yet considerable mean differences were noted between the measurement devices. Our results validate use of the FoB for measuring humeral kinematics and establish our testing protocol as reliable. We must continue to consider factors that can impact system accuracy and the effects they may have on kinematic descriptions and how data are reported.
Chris Riddoch, Dawn Edwards, Angie Page, Karsten Froberg, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Niels Wedderkopp, Søren Brage, Ashley R. Cooper, Luis B. Sardinha, Maarike Harro, Lena Klasson-Heggebø, Willem van Mechelen, Colin Boreham, Ulf Ekelund, Lars Bo Andersen and The European Youth Heart Study Team
The aim of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is to establish the nature, strength, and interactions between personal, environmental, and lifestyle influences on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in European children.
The EYHS is an international study measuring CVD risk factors, and their associated influences, in children. Relationships between these independent factors and risk of disease will inform the design of CVD interventions in children. A minimum of 1000 boys and girls ages 9 and 15 y were recruited from four European countries—Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Portugal. Variables measured included physical, biochemical, lifestyle, psychosocial, and sociodemographic data.
Of the 5664 children invited to participate, 4169 (74%) accepted. Response rates for most individual tests were moderate to high. All test protocols were well received by the children.
EYHS protocols are valid, reliable, acceptable to children, and feasible for use in large, field-based studies.
Roberta E. Rikli and C. Jessie Jones
Preventing or delaying the onset of physical frailty is an increasingly important goal because more individuals are living well into their 8th and 9th decades. We describe the development and validation of a functional fitness test battery that can assess the physiologic parameters that support physical mobility in older adults. The procedures involved in the test development were (a) developing a theoretical framework for the test items, (b) establishing an advisory panel of experts, (c) determining test selection criteria, (d) selecting the test items, and (e) establishing test reliability and validity. The complete battery consists of 6 items (and one alternative) designed to assess the physiologic parameters associated with independent functioning—lower and upper body strength, aerobic endurance, lower and upper body flexibility, and agility/dynamic balance. We also assessed body mass index as an estimate of body composition. We concluded that the tests met the established criteria for scientific rigor and feasibility for use in common community settings.
Isaac Estevan, Javier Molina-García, Gavin Abbott, Steve J. Bowe, Isabel Castillo and Lisa M. Barnett
such questions, it is noted that some societies can be considered as relational (i.e., the group is considered as paramount rather than the individual), while others could be described as individualistic societies ( Cross & Madson, 1997 ). In this line, it is important to investigate the validity of
Stephen K. Ford and Jeffery J. Summers
The factorial validity of the attentional-style subscales of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) have recently been questioned, although the evidence is only indirect. This study aimed to examine, directly, the factorial validity of these scales and to cross-validate the results. Two samples of 210 first-year psychology students responded to the 52 items comprising the attention-related subscales of the TAIS. A multidimensional confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA) was conducted on the interitem covariance matrix to test the measurement model underlying the six subscales. The MCFA results failed to support the model. Furthermore, internal consistency coefficients and item-total coefficients also supported the view that many of the subscales have insufficient factorial validity. Of the 52 items, 44% correlated better with at least one subscale other than their own, which indicates poor discriminant validity. Analysis of item content reveals some explanation for the poor discriminant validity. All results were cross-validated with the second sample.
Jacob A. Goldsmith, Cameron Trepeck, Jessica L. Halle, Kristin M. Mendez, Alex Klemp, Daniel M. Cooke, Michael H. Haischer, Ryan K. Byrnes, Robert F. Zoeller, Michael Whitehurst and Michael C. Zourdos
criterion systems, the Optotrak Certus 3-dimensional motion capture system (OC3D) is a reliable and valid criterion measurement of movement velocity. 3 Investigations examining validity of LPTs have limitations including not comparing the devices to a true criterion, 4 or performing insufficient
Pamela L.Y.H. Ching and William H. Dietz Jr.
Nonobese, preadolescent girls self-reported, and their parents provided proxy reports of daughters’ daily activities using questionnaires. Responses were evaluated for test-retest reliability, and for validity using one-week diaries. Results indicated all three respondents provided reproducible estimates of time daughters spent watching TV; daughters and mothers, of time daughters spent sleeping; and parents, of time daughters spent in vigorous activities. However, only daughters >10 years of age could provide valid reports for time spent in moderate activities and in sedentary and light activities on school days. Study results suggest that daughters and parents have difficulty providing reliable and valid estimates of activity level.
Lisa S. Jutte, Kenneth L. Knight and Blaine C. Long
Examine thermocouple model uncertainty (reliability + validity).
First, a 3 × 3 repeated measures design with independent variables electrothermometers and thermocouple model. Second, a 1 × 3 repeated measures design with independent variable subprobe.
Three electrothermometers, 3 thermocouple models, a multi-sensor probe and a mercury thermometer measured a stable water bath.
Main Outcome Measures:
Temperature and absolute temperature differences between thermocouples and a mercury thermometer.
Thermocouple uncertainty was greater than manufactures’ claims. For all thermocouple models, validity and reliability were better in the Iso-Themex than the Datalogger, but there were no practical differences between models within an electrothermometers. Validity of multi-sensor probes and thermocouples within a probe were not different but were greater than manufacturers’ claims. Reliability of multiprobes and thermocouples within a probe were within manufacturers claims.
Thermocouple models vary in reliability and validity. Scientists should test and report the uncertainty of their equipment rather than depending on manufactures’ claims.