To assess original research addressing the effect of the application of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise, a computer-based literature research was performed in July 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Studies examining the effect of compression clothing on endurance, strength and power, motor control, and physiological, psychological, and biomechanical parameters during or after exercise were included, and means and measures of variability of the outcome measures were recorded to estimate the effect size (Hedges g) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of experimental (compression) and control trials (noncompression). The characteristics of the compression clothing, participants, and study design were also extracted. The original research from peer-reviewed journals was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Results indicated small effect sizes for the application of compression clothing during exercise for shortduration sprints (10–60 m), vertical-jump height, extending time to exhaustion (such as running at VO2max or during incremental tests), and time-trial performance (3–60 min). When compression clothing was applied for recovery purposes after exercise, small to moderate effect sizes were observed in recovery of maximal strength and power, especially vertical-jump exercise; reductions in muscle swelling and perceived muscle pain; blood lactate removal; and increases in body temperature. These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may assist athletic performance and recovery in given situations with consideration of the effects magnitude and practical relevance.
Dennis-Peter Born, Billy Sperlich and Hans-Christer Holmberg
Zandrie Hofman, Rolf Smeets, George Verlaan, Richard v.d. Lugt and Peter A. Verstappen
In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of 8 weeks of supplementation with bovine colostrum (Intact™) on body composition and exercise performance (5 × 10-m sprint, vertical jump, shuttle-run test, and suicide test). Seventeen female and 18 male elite field hockey players, including players from the Dutch national team, received either 60 g of colostrum or whey protein daily. The 5 × 10-m sprint test performance improved significantly (p = .023) more in the colostrum group [0.64±0.09 s (mean ± SEM)] compared to the whey group (0.33±0.09 s). The vertical jump performance improved more in the colostrum group (2.1 ± 0.73 cm) compared to the whey group (0.32 ± 0.82 cm). However, this was not statistically significant (p = .119). There were also no significant differences in changes in body composition and endurance tests between the 2 groups. It is concluded that in elite field hockey players, colostrum supplementation improves sprint performance better than whey. However, there were no differences with regard to body composition or endurance performance.
Rachel A. Hildebrand, Bridget Miller, Aric Warren, Deana Hildebrand and Brenda J. Smith
Increasing evidence indicates that compromised vitamin D status, as indicated by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D), is associated with decreased muscle function. The purpose of this study was to determine the vitamin D status of collegiate athletes residing in the southern U.S. and its effects on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Collegiate athletes (n = 103) from three separate NCAA athletic programs were recruited for the study. Anthropometrics, vitamin D and calcium intake, and sun exposure data were collected along with serum 25-OH D and physical performance measures (Vertical Jump Test, Shuttle Run Test, Triple Hop for Distance Test and the 1 Repetition Maximum Squat Test) to determine the influence of vitamin D status on muscular strength and anaerobic power. Approximately 68% of the study participants were vitamin D adequate (>75 nmol/L), whereas 23% were insufficient (75–50 nmol/L) and 9%, predominantly non-Caucasian athletes, were deficient (<50 nmol/L). Athletes who had lower vitamin D status had reduced performance scores (p < .01) with odds ratios of 0.85 on the Vertical Jump Test, 0.82 on the Shuttle Run Test, 0.28 on the Triple Hop for Distance Test, and 0.23 on the 1 RM Squat Test. These findings demonstrate that even NCAA athletes living in the southern US are at risk for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may be important for these athletes to optimize their muscular strength and power.
Nathan J. Crockett and Michelle A. Sandrey
Few studies have evaluated the long-term effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a sport season.
To determine the effects of prophylactic ankle-brace use during a high school basketball season on dynamic postural control and functional tests.
Prospective repeated-measures design.
High school athletic facility.
21 healthy high school basketball athletes (13 girls, 8 boys).
The order of testing was randomized using the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) for posteromedial (PM), medial (M), and anteromedial (AM) directions and 3 functional tests (FT) consisting of the single-leg crossover hop, single-leg vertical jump, and the single-leg 6-m hop for time at pre-, mid-, and postseason. After pretesting, the ankle brace was worn on both limbs during the entire 16-wk competitive basketball season.
Main Outcome Measures:
SEBT for PM, M, and AM and 3 single-leg FTs.
Dynamic postural control using the SEBT and the 3 FTs improved over time, notably from pretest to posttest. The left limb was different from the right limb during the single-leg vertical jump. Effect sizes were large for pretest to posttest for the 3 SEBT directions and 2 of the 3 FTs.
The 16-wk basketball prophylactic ankle-brace intervention significantly improved dynamic postural control and single-limb FTs over time.
John E. Kovaleski, Robert J. Heitman, Damon P.S. Andrew, Larry R. Gurchiek and Albert W. Pearsall IV
Isokinetic strength and functional performance are used to assess recovery after rehabilitation. It is not known whether low-speed closed-linear-kinetic isokinetic muscle strength correlates with functional performance.
To investigate the relationship between linear closed (CKC) and open (OKC) concentric isokinetic strength of the dominant lower-limb extensors and functional performance.
Thirty uninjured men and women (age = 20.9 ± 2.4 years).
Main Outcome Measures:
Peak CKC and OKC isokinetic strength and best score from a shuttle run for time, single-leg vertical jump, and single-leg hop for distance.
Neither lower-limb CKC nor OKC isokinetic strength measured at low speeds correlated highly with performance on the functional tasks of jumping, hopping, and speed/agility.
Although the basis of both closed and open isokinetic strength must be appreciated, they should not be the only determinants of functional performance.
Michael R. Bracko and Gilbert W. Fellingham
Fifty-four female and 77 male hockey players ranging in age from 10–15 years volunteered for this study. Demographic data included: age (AGE) and years of playing experience (YPE). Off-ice tests included: height (HGT), body mass (BM), lean body mass (LBM), predicted body fat % (FAT%), 40-yard dash (40YD), vertical jump (VJ), push-ups/min (PUPS), sit-ups/min (SUPS), and sit-and-reach flexibility (S&R). On-ice performance skating tests included: acceleration (ACC), agility (AGL), and speed (SPD). On-ice anaerobic power (AnPow) was calculated using the formula of Watson and Sargeant (IS). Generally speaking, the females and males in this study had similar results in office fitness. The males consistently out-performed the females in the on-ice tests. It would be difficult for females to compete with or against same-aged males based on the fact that males are superior skaters.
Kensaku Suei, Leslie McGillis, Randy Calvert and Oded Bar-Or
We assess relationships among muscle endurance, strength, and explosiveness in forty-eight 9.6- to 17.0-year-old males divided into 3 maturational groups (Tanner Stages I, II-IV, and V). Peak torque during isometric knee extension and flexion was averaged to reflect strength. Mechanical power in the Sargent vertical jump was taken as explosiveness, and total work in the Wingate test reflected muscle endurance. Correlations (3 groups combined) among the variables, expressed in absolute terms, were r = .82 to .92, but only -.11 to .70 when expressed per body mass or lean thigh size. These correlations were distinctly lower in the Tanner V boys than in the 2 less-mature groups, which may suggest that specialization into discrete muscle performance characteristics does not occur before late puberty.
Robert C. Weber and JoAnne Thorpe
The purpose of the study was to determine whether the technique of task variation with maintenance tasks interspersed is more effective than a constant task condition in a physical education setting in learning gross motor skills for severely disabled individuals. The subjects for the study included 28 males, 12 autistic and 16 severely mentally retarded students, ages 10 to 14 years. The design for this study was a pretest-posttest configuration with the I Can Assessment of Gross Motor Skills utilized to assess the basic skills of overhand throw, kick, vertical jump, slide, continuous bounce, and underhand roll. Results indicated that following a 6-week treatment period the task variation with maintenance tasks interspersed condition was significantly more effective at the .01 level in learning gross motor skills than a constant task condition. However, when autistic and severely mentally retarded individuals were compared, there were no significant differences.
Ronnie Lidor and Gal Ziv
The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 31) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and volleyball skills of female and male adolescent volleyball players. Among the main findings were (a) that male national players were taller and heavier than state and novice players, while female national players showed lower body fat values compared with state and novice players, and (b) vertical jump values were higher in starters versus nonstarters. Among the methodological concerns based on the reviewed studies were the lack of information on maturational age and lack of longitudinal studies. It was recommended that a careful selection of physiological tests should be made when assessing the abilities of adolescent volleyball players.
Anni Rava, Anu Pihlak, Jaan Ereline, Helena Gapeyeva, Tatjana Kums, Priit Purge, Jaak Jürimäe and Mati Pääsuke
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in body composition, neuromuscular performance, and mobility in healthy, regularly exercising and inactive older women, and examine the relationship between skeletal muscle indices and mobility. Overall, 32 healthy older women participated. They were divided into groups according to their physical activity history as regularly exercising (n = 22) and inactive (n = 10) women. Body composition, hand grip strength, leg extensor muscle strength, rapid force development, power output, and mobility indices were assessed. Regularly exercising women had lower fat mass and higher values for leg extensor muscle strength and muscle quality, and also for mobility. Leg extensor muscle strength and power output during vertical jumping and appendicular lean mass per unit of body mass were associated with mobility in healthy older women. It was concluded that long-term regular exercising may have beneficial effects on body composition and physical function in older women.