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Francesco Campa and Stefania Toselli

Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a fast, safe, and noninvasive method to obtain quantitative estimates of body composition (BC) values. 1 BIA data (resistance and reactance), through bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), are used to evaluate cellular function and hydration

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Khaled Trabelsi, Kais el Abed, Stephen R. Stannard, Kamel Jammoussi, Khaled M. Zeghal and Ahmed Hakim

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in physically active men. Nineteen men were allocated to 2 groups: 10 practicing aerobic training in a fasted state (FAST) and 9 training in an acutely fed state (FED) during Ramadan. All subjects visited the laboratory for a total of 4 sessions on the following occasions: 3 days before Ramadan (Bef-R), the 15th day of Ramadan; the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R), and 21 days after Ramadan. During each session, subjects underwent anthropometric measurement, completed a dietary questionnaire, and provided fasting blood and urine samples. Body weight decreased in FAST and FED by 1.9% (p < .001) and 2.6% (p = .046), respectively. Body fat percentage decreased only in FAST by 6.2% (p = .016). FAST experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urine specific gravity (0.64%, p = .012), urea (8.7%, p < .001), creatinine (7.5%, p < .001), uric acid (12.7%, p < .001), sodium (1.9%, p = .003), chloride (2.6%, p < .001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (27.3%, p < .001). Of these parameters, only creatinine increased (5.8%, p = .004) in FED. Creatinine clearance values of FAST decreased by 8.9% (p < .001) and by 7.6% in FED (p = .01) from Bef-R to End-R. The authors conclude that aerobic training in a fasted state lowers body weight and body fat percentage. In contrast, fed aerobic training decreases only body weight. In addition, Ramadan fasting induced change in some metabolic parameters in FAST, but these changes were absent in FED.

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Bailey Peck, Timothy Renzi, Hannah Peach, Jane Gaultney and Joseph S. Marino

offensive and defensive linemen using evaluation criteria previously reported for similar populations. This study compared self-reported sleep patterns, daytime sleepiness, body composition, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and the Modified Mallampati Index (MMPI) between college football

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

activity ( Donnelly et al., 2009 ). While the ACSM promotes resistance training (RT) as a means of increasing fat-free mass, which should lead to improved body composition, it does not promote RT for losing significant amounts of body fat. Similarly, the United States Public Health Service physical

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Erik Sesbreno, Gary Slater, Margo Mountjoy and Stuart D.R. Galloway

The assessment of body composition is common in sports given the association with performance. In many elite sport programs, fat mass (FM) is monitored given the negative implications of excessive fat on power to weight ratio, hydrodynamic drag, and performance scores ( Claessens et al., 1994

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Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Konstantinos Michaloglou, Alexandra Avloniti, Diamanda Leontsini, Chariklia K. Deli, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Luis Gracia-Marco, Sotirios Arsenis, Ioannis Athanailidis, Dimitrios Draganidis, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas, Craig A. Williams and Ioannis G. Fatouros

, United Kingdom) with subjects wearing the underclothes and barefooted. Standing height was evaluated to the nearest 0.5 cm (Seca stadiometer 208; Seca). Body composition (%fat) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (Lunar DPX; GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) as described. 18 Pubertal

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S. Nicole Fearnbach, Neil M. Johannsen, Corby K. Martin, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Owen T. Carmichael and Amanda E. Staiano

gold standard measures, such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for body composition and laboratory-based measures of VO 2 peak. Many previous reports in youth rely heavily on field tests such as the 20-m shuttle run test with equations to estimate VO 2 peak

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JesÚs Rico-Sanz

This review summarizes results from studies investigating the physical characteristics, daily energy expenditures, diets, and effects of nutritional supplements to the habitual diets of soecer players. The results show that players fall within a wide range of stature and body weight, and they are classified as mesomorphs. The body fat of male players is about 10% of body weight, whereas the average for females is about 21%. Energy expenditure for males is about 4,000 kcal on training days and 3,800 keal on match day. while energy intake reported in other studies is on the order of 3,700 kcal. Carbohydrate (CHO), fat, and protein intakes are about 53,30, and 14% of energy intake, respectively, the remaining being from alcohol intake. There are indications that CHO supplements might be beneficial during soccer performance. However, more research is needed to clarity the importance of branched-chain amino acid and creatine supplementation in soccer.

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Shane Ball, Mark Halaki, Tristan Sharp and Rhonda Orr

high match loads result in negative outcomes for body-composition and physical-performance characteristics and, in turn, increased injury risk. 12 Unlike rugby league, similar research across a competitive season has not been widely conducted in rugby union. Given the different positional demands in

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Roger L. Hammer, Daryl McCombs and A. Garth Fisher

It has been suggested that weight loss and regain, known as weight cycling, may result in greater body fatness and increased upper body fat distribution which may lead to adverse health consequences. These are concerns that may discourage some obese women from undergoing weight loss efforts. We retested 44 obese women, who took part in one of two weight control studies conducted in our laboratory, at either 6 or 12 months posttreatment. The followup study was performed to determine whether percent body fat and waist/hip ratio (WHR) had increased in those subjects who failed to maintain their weight loss. Subjects lost (mean + SD) 8.6 + 1.2 kg body weight, of which 7.0 + 1.0 kg was fat, and reduced their WHR by 0.03 + 0.006 (all p’s < .01) after either 12 or 16 weeks of treatment comprised of eating a low-fat diet, and in most cases performing endurance exercise training. At followup subjects were divided into groups based on the amount of weight regained. Those who regained (n=19) their lost weight were not fatter nor was their WHR higher than before the study began. These results do not support claims that weight cycling, in this case a single cycle, increases overall percentage of body fat or causes a redistribution of fat to the abdominal region of women.