This review summarizes results from studies investigating the physical characteristics, daily energy expenditures, diets, and effects of nutritional supplements to the habitual diets of soecer players. The results show that players fall within a wide range of stature and body weight, and they are classified as mesomorphs. The body fat of male players is about 10% of body weight, whereas the average for females is about 21%. Energy expenditure for males is about 4,000 kcal on training days and 3,800 keal on match day. while energy intake reported in other studies is on the order of 3,700 kcal. Carbohydrate (CHO), fat, and protein intakes are about 53,30, and 14% of energy intake, respectively, the remaining being from alcohol intake. There are indications that CHO supplements might be beneficial during soccer performance. However, more research is needed to clarity the importance of branched-chain amino acid and creatine supplementation in soccer.
Shane Ball, Mark Halaki, Tristan Sharp and Rhonda Orr
high match loads result in negative outcomes for body-composition and physical-performance characteristics and, in turn, increased injury risk. 12 Unlike rugby league, similar research across a competitive season has not been widely conducted in rugby union. Given the different positional demands in
Susan M. Moen, Charlotte F. Sanborn and Nancy DiMarco
The present study was conducted to compare dietary intakes and percentage of body fat between adolescent female runners and sedentary adolescent females. Thirty white girls, aged 15-18 years, served as subjects. Twenty had run between 20 and 55 miles per week for the past 1-5 years. The ten controls had not exercised for at least the past year other than in physical education classes. Nutrient intake was analyzed from 3-day dietary records. Percentage of body fat was estimated using hydrostatic weighing and skinfold thicknesses measured at the right triceps and calf. No significant differences were found between the 20 runners and the 10 controls in intakes of energy, calcium, or iron. Although daily caloric intakes were not higher for the runners, the two groups differed in percentage of body fat; the mean value for the runners was significantly lower than the control group’s value. Both groups consumed greater than recommended percentages of fat and less than recommended percentages of carbohydrates. In addition, both calcium and iron consumptions were below recommended values. In summary, the female runners had typically poor American teenage diets. Overall, these athletes should be instructed to increase their total kilocalories, consume a greater percentage of carbohydrates, and select foods high in calcium and iron.
Roger L. Hammer, Daryl McCombs and A. Garth Fisher
It has been suggested that weight loss and regain, known as weight cycling, may result in greater body fatness and increased upper body fat distribution which may lead to adverse health consequences. These are concerns that may discourage some obese women from undergoing weight loss efforts. We retested 44 obese women, who took part in one of two weight control studies conducted in our laboratory, at either 6 or 12 months posttreatment. The followup study was performed to determine whether percent body fat and waist/hip ratio (WHR) had increased in those subjects who failed to maintain their weight loss. Subjects lost (mean + SD) 8.6 + 1.2 kg body weight, of which 7.0 + 1.0 kg was fat, and reduced their WHR by 0.03 + 0.006 (all p’s < .01) after either 12 or 16 weeks of treatment comprised of eating a low-fat diet, and in most cases performing endurance exercise training. At followup subjects were divided into groups based on the amount of weight regained. Those who regained (n=19) their lost weight were not fatter nor was their WHR higher than before the study began. These results do not support claims that weight cycling, in this case a single cycle, increases overall percentage of body fat or causes a redistribution of fat to the abdominal region of women.
Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Zuzanna Chęcińska, Emilia Korek, Justyna Kupsz, Anna Sowińska and Hanna Krauss
We determined whether cold water swimming for six consecutive months results in adaptive changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Thirty healthy subjects aged 50.2 ± 9.4 years were exposed to cold water at least twice a week. Body composition was determined and serum glucose and insulin served to calculate beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance using HOMA2. Compared with control subjects, swimmers were overweight, and had greater percent body fat and beta cell function. Women had lower values of BMI, fat free mass, muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue level, and greater percent body fat than men. Increased insulin sensitivity and decreased insulin secretion and resistance from beginning to middle of swim season was observed in females and in lean subjects. Findings suggest that men and women differ in regard to body composition and response to repeated cold exposure. Cold water swimming may beneficially modulate insulin sensitivity in cold acclimated lean swimmers.
Darryn S. Willoughby, Colin Wilborn, Lemuel Taylor and William Campbell
This study examined the effects of an aromatase-inhibiting nutritional supplement on serum steroid hormones, body composition, and clinical safety markers. Sixteen eugonadal young men ingested either Novedex XT™ or a placebo daily for 8 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period. Body composition was assessed and blood and urine samples obtained at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 11. Data were analyzed by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Novedex XT resulted in average increases of 283%, 625%, 566%, and 438% for total testosterone (P = 0.001), free testosterone (P = 0.001), dihydrotestosterone (P = 0.001), and the testosterone:estrogen ratio (P = 0.001), respectively, whereas fat mass decreased 3.5% (P = 0.026) during supplementation. No significant differences were observed in blood and urinary clinical safety markers or for any of the other serum hormones (P > 0.05). This study indicates that Novedex XT significantly increases serum androgen levels and decreases fat mass.
Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre, Eric D.B. Goulet and Isabelle J. Dionne
Hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) attenuates the menopause-associated alterations in body composition. It is not known, however, whether this effect is a result of a concomitant increase in energy expenditure. The authors examined whether women submitted to a long-term HRT treatment presented greater energy expenditure than women who had never used HRT. We compared 13 postmenopausal women using HRT (>1 yr) with 13 age- (±2 yr) and body-mass-index-matched (BMI; ±1.5kg/m2) postmenopausal women not using HRT. Resting energy expenditure (REE; indirect calorimetry), body composition, and daily (DEE) and physical activity (PAEE) energy expenditure (accelerometry) were obtained. Although BMI, fat mass, fat-free mass, DEE, and PAEE were similar between groups, the HRT group displayed a significantly greater REE than the no-HRT group (Δ +222 kcal/day). In conclusion, the authors observed that a long-term treatment with HRT is associated with a greater REE in postmenopausal women. These results need to be confirmed.
N. Füsun Toraman, Alparslan Erman and Evren Agyar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 9-week supervised multicomponent exercise program on functional fitness and body composition in independent older adults. Forty-two adults age 60–86 years were randomly assigned to an exercise or a control group and were evaluated before and after training. The training program consisted of 3 sessions of walking, strengthening, and flexibility exercises per week. The multicomponent training program resulted in significant (p < .005) improvements on the chair stand, arm curl, 6-min walk, and up-and-go tests. The findings of this study indicate that a 9-week training program increased upper and lower body strength, aerobic endurance, and agility/dynamic balance in older adults. The most affected components of functional fitness were lower body strength and aerobic endurance. There was no effect of the 9-week training on body composition.
André X. Bigard, Pierre Lavier, Lionel Ullmann, Hélène Legrand, Philippe Douce and Charles Y. Guezennec
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would minimize changes in body composition and alterations in plasma amino acid profile induced by prolonged exercises at altitude. Twenty-four highly trained subjects participated in six successive sessions of ski mountaineering (6-8 hr duration, altitude 2,500-4,100 m). Twelve subjects took a dietary supplement of BCAA (BCAA group) and 12 took a dietary supplement that was 98% carbohydrate (C group). Body weight decreased in C subjects (-2.1%,p < .01), while the body weight loss recorded in the BCAA group was not statistically significant (-1.2%, NS). Changes in body composition that resulted from repeated skiing exercise at altitude were not significantly minimized by BCAA administration. Peak power output recorded during an incremental bicycle exercise decreased in C subjects but did not change significantly in BCAA subjects. Results of this study demonstrate that neither changes in body composition related to the ski mountaineering program nor muscular performance during isometric contraction was significantly affected by BCAA administration.
Annie Fex, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Marie-Eve Filion, Antony D. Karelis and Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre
The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of elliptical high intensity interval training (HIIT) on metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.
Sixteen pre- (n = 8) and type 2 diabetes (n = 8) participants completed this study. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, anthropometric measurements, body composition (DXA), blood pressure, resting heart rate, VO2max, and dietary factors, as well as total and physical activity energy expenditure, were measured. The HIIT program on the elliptical was performed 3 times a week for 12 weeks.
After the intervention, we observed a significant improvement for fasting blood glucose, waist and hip circumference, appendicular fat mass, leg lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, and VO2max (P < .05). In addition, we noted a lower tendency for leg fat mass (P = .06) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .05) as well as a higher tendency for total energy expenditure (P = .06) after the intervention.
The current study indicates that elliptical HIIT seems to improve metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.