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Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam

considered in a few (multiple measurements: Geithner et al., 2006 ; body mass only: Ransdell & Murray, 2011 ; Ransdell, Murray, & Gao, 2013 ), and none of these considered chronological age, maturity status, or body size as contributors to RAEs. Understanding the maturity status of adult female athletes

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Mynor Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jeffrey S. Martin, David D. Pascoe, Michael D. Roberts and Danielle W. Wadsworth

. Recruitment occurred through local advertising, university websites, social media, and study flyers posted on public bulletin boards. Participants participated in this study if they were females between 19 and 55 years old, had a body mass index >30 kg/m 2 , were not involved in any structured physical

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Courteney L. Benjamin, William M. Adams, Ryan M. Curtis, Yasuki Sekiguchi, Gabrielle E.W. Giersch and Douglas J. Casa

[ M ] age = 19 years, standard deviation [ SD ] age = 1 year; M [ SD ] body mass = 58.8 [9.6] kg; M [ SD ] height = 168.4 [7.7] cm; M [ SD ] VO 2max  = 53.6 [5.6] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ) participated in this study, which took place during the 2016 NCAA cross-country season (August–December) in the

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Sergio Estrada-Tenorio, José A. Julián, Alberto Aibar, José Martín-Albo and Javier Zaragoza

of MVPA per day (group 1), 30 to 50 minutes of MVPA per day (group 2), 50 to 70 minutes of MVPA per day (group 3), 70 to 90 minutes of MVPA per day (group 4), and >90 minutes of MVPA per day (group 5). Covariates A series of potential confounders were included: socioeconomic status, body mass index

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

Restrictive Food Intake Disorder; Rumination = Rumination Disorder; LOS = Length of Stay in days for the total number of days in either residential and/or partial hospitalization programming; admit BMI = Admission Body Mass Index. Procedures This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at

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Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin

-time trajectory classes, and (3) to examine gender differences in such associations with taking into account age, education, body mass index (BMI), and smoking. Methods Participants The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is an ongoing longitudinal population-based study consisting of 6 cohorts born in 1962

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Steven A. Hawkins, Robert A. Wiswell and E. Todd Schroeder

This study examined the relationships between high-intensity resistance exercise and bone mass in postmenopausal women and serum reproductive-hormone levels and bone-mass changes in response to resistance exercise. Women 45–65 years old were assigned to an exercise or a control group. They trained 3 times weekly for 18 weeks at 90,70, and 80% of their 1-RM. Groups were not different in age, height, body mass, muscle strength, or lean body mass. Initial muscle strength increased significantly in the training group. Total hip and intertrochanter bone-mineral density (BMD) increased in the training group. Estradiol, testosterone, osteocalcin, and CrossLaps concentration did not change in either group. Serum estradiol was significantly related to change in BMD at the hip, femoral neck, and intertrochanter, as well as change in lean mass. Results suggest that high-intensity resistance exercise can increase BMD of the hip and that serum estrogen concentrations might influence bone and muscle adaptations to resistance exercise in postmenopausal women.

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Taina Rantanen and Eino Heikkinen

The aim of this study was to examine alterations in maximal isometric strength of multiple muscle groups over 5 years and to compare strength changes between individuals who maintained a high level of physical activity and others who did not. As a part of the Evergreen Project, 20 men and 59 women participated in at least one strength test at the age of 80 and again 5 years later. Men displayed no decrease in lean body mass over the follow-up. and the only significant strength decrease was in elbow flexion strength. In women, both lean body mass and muscle strength decreased significantly (except trunk extension strength). Overall, those men and women who were considered to have maintained a high level of activity retained their strength at a higher level than the more sedentary participants. Older people should be encouraged to continue physically demanding activities to maintain muscle strength at an adequate level for independent living.

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Joey C. Eisenmann, R. Todd Bartee and Krystal D. Damori


The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence of participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overweight and obesity, and (b) to examine the associations between physical activity and weight status in a sample of university students from a rural university.


Data from a representative sample of 773 (361 women, 412 men) students participating in the National College Health Assessment Survey were examined. MVPA and height and body mass were self-reported. The body-mass index (BMI) was derived and used to classify subjects as normal, overweight, or obese.


Approximately 20% of students were inactive (0 d/wk), and 23% met the recommended amount of MVPA (≥5 d/wk). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was, respectively, 35.7% and 8.5% in men and, respectively, 15.6% and 8.2% in women. Analysis of variance revealed the mean BMI was not significantly different across levels of MVPA. Odds ratios showed higher levels of MVPA were significantly associated with lower risk of obesity in men but not women.


A large percentage of subjects are inactive or insufficiently active, and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity is significantly related to risk of obesity in men. Future studies should measure habitual physical activity or energy expenditure and body composition. Additional factors affecting obesity, such as television viewing and other sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, and heritability, should also be considered.

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Heather M. Hayes, Joey C. Eisenmann, Karin Pfeiffer and Joseph J. Carlson


The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and joint association of weight status and physical activity on resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein in children.


Participants were 174 (71 males, 103 females) children (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.4 yrs). Physical activity was self-reported, body mass index was calculated from measured height and body mass, and blood pressure was measured according to standard procedures. A subset of 91 children had C-reactive protein measured by fingerstick blood sample. Four weight/physical activity groups were created by cross tabulation of weight status classification and physical activity level.


The prevalence of low physical activity (< 5 days/wk moderate-vigorous activity) did not differ between overweight and normal weight children (50%). Physical activity was not correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.01; P = 0.91) and C-reactive protein was not significantly different between physical activity groups (P = 0.87). Physical activity did not modify the difference in blood pressure or C-reactive protein within weight categories.


Fatness (specifically overweight and obesity), but not physical activity, was shown to be associated with blood pressure and C-reactive protein levels in children. Physical activity did not attenuate blood pressure or C-reactive protein in overweight and obese children.