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Lisa A. Kihl, Tim Richardson and Charles Campisi

The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explain how student-athletes are affected by an instance of academic corruption. Using a grounded theory approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1998), multiple sources of data were collected and analyzed using the constant comparison method leading to theory generation. Findings revealed that student-athletes suffer three main consequences (negative treatment, sanctions, and a sense of loss) that lead to various harmful outcomes (e.g., distrust, embarrassment, dysfunctional relationships, stakeholder separation, anger, stress, and conflict). However, the consequences also created a positive outcome displayed through a dual consciousness of corruption (resiliency and empowerment). The results are compared with existing theoretical concepts and previous research associated with the outcomes of corruption. This theory adds to our knowledge of the nature of suffering experienced by student-athletes as a result of corruption and provides direction for future research and practice.

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Lisa Kihl and Tim Richardson

Individuals who are appointed the responsibility of managing a sport program following an instance of academic corruption endure various forms of harm that warrants investigation. Extending from our empirical study of the University of Minnesota’s incidence of academic corruption (Kihl, Richardson, & Campisi, 2008), this article provides an associated grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) of suffering that conceptualizes how a newly hired coaching staff is impacted. Using a grounded theory methodology, it was theorized that academic corruption causes a coaching staff to suffer four main consequences: sanctions, stakeholder separation, reform policies, and managing multiple roles. These consequences lead to various harmful outcomes (e.g., distrust, dysfunctional relationships, anger, stress, and conflict). The results are compared with existing research that assisted in the generation of a theory of suffering. This theory adds to our knowledge about the challenges a coaching staff experiences when administrating an intercollegiate basketball program during postcorruption.

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Rebekah L. Scott and J. Gregory Anson

Conversion Disorder affects voluntary motor and sensory function and involves unexplained neurological symptoms without an organic cause. Many researchers have attempted to explain how these symptoms arise but the neural correlates associated with Conversion Disorder remain largely unknown to clinicians and neuroscientists alike. This review focuses on investigations of Conversion Disorder (with motor symptoms) when deficits in voluntary movement occur. No single consistent hypothesis has emerged regarding the underlying cortical mechanisms associated with motor Conversion Disorder. However, findings from electrophysiology, neuroimaging, and behavioral research implicate the involvement of prefrontal networks. With further research using measurement techniques precise in spatial as well as temporal resolution, the conflict associated with two views of the neural correlates of motor Conversion Disorder may be resolved. This will provide a better understanding of the impairment associated with the preparation, generation, and execution of intentional movement in Conversion Disorder.

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Donna J. Kuga

This study examined faculty perceptions of (a) the impact of intercollegiate athletics on institutional goals and educational experiences, (b) the role and influence of faculty regarding athletics, and (c) the factors influencing their willingness (or unwillingness) to participate in the governance of intercollegiate athletics. The study also investigated differences in faculty reactions among subgroups defined by gender, faculty status, and previous athletic participation. A sample of 240 faculty from a Big Ten Conference university responded to a mailed questionnaire. Factor analyses yielded 2 factors in impact of intercollegiate athletics, 2 factors in role and influence, 3 factors in reasons for faculty involvement, and 6 factors in reasons for lack of faculty involvement. MANOVA results indicated that those who had participated in athletics perceived greater Educational Contribution of athletics and less Value Conflicts between athletics and academics than those who had not participated in athletics.

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Jeffrey J. Martin and Kerry Smith

The purpose of the current investigation was to examine friendship quality with a best friend in youth disability sport with an international sample of moderately experienced athletes with disabilities ages 9 to 18 years. Participants were 85 males and 65 females from four countries who competed in track and field and swimming. Data were collected with the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (Weiss & Smith, 1999). An exploratory factor analyses indicated that participants viewed their friendship quality with a best friend in disability sport as having both positive and negative dimensions. The latter focused exclusively on conflict experiences. Females reported stronger perceptions of the benefits of their friendships than males did; whereas no gender differences occurred in perceptions of the negative aspects to friendships. Item analyses indicated that females scored higher than males on questions reflecting loyalty, providing intimacy, self-esteem, supportiveness, having things in common, and playing together.

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Chris Wirszyla

High school physical education programs in South Carolina have undergone a major reform effort which was implemented through extensive staff development called the Physical Education Institute (PEI). How to teach toward student performance indicators became the focus of the in-services. This study identified factors that facilitated or hindered implementing the performance indicators, and examined the extent to which key players from three selected programs of secondary physical education were able to achieve the goals of the reform effort. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, and videotaping lessons. Results reveal that “lead teachers” facilitated the extent to which programs met the goals of reform. The teaching/coaching role conflict was a main hindrance. Each school and teacher met each of the student performance indicators to varying degrees. Implications include the need for a shared reform, holding teachers and students accountable, and the need for administrators and university faculty to be involved.

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Karen E. Danylchuk

The prevalence of occupational Stressors in physical education faculties/ departments as a function of sex, age, marital status, family status, years of work experience in higher education, and type of appointment was examined through use of the Stress Diagnostic Survey (Ivancevich & Matteson, 1988a). This multidimensional self-report inventory consists of 17 dimensions, which are further subdivided into organizational Stressors (macrostressors) and individual Stressors (microstressors). The sample reported moderate degrees of stress in comparison to the normative data with the macrostressors being greater sources of stress than the microstressors. Quantitative overload was rated the highest followed by time pressure and rewards. Qualitative overload was rated lowest followed by role ambiguity and role conflict. Sex was associated with the greatest number of Stressors—gender discrimination, quantitative overload, and time pressure. Females perceived these three Stressors to be significantly greater sources of stress than did males.

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Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Jean F. Fournier and Alice Dubois

Coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions regarding their effective interactions and the underlying factors and reasons for effectiveness of these interactions were examined. An in-depth interview process was conducted with three expert judo coaches and six elite athletes. Qualitative data analyses revealed that the interaction style of the coaches was authoritative and was put into operation using the following six strategies: stimulating interpersonal rivalry, provoking athletes verbally, displaying indifference, entering into direct conflict, developing specific team cohesion, and showing preferences. Perceived autonomy, the main interaction style of athletes, was expressed by the following five strategies: showing diplomacy, achieving exceptional performance, soliciting coaches directly, diversifying information sources, and bypassing conventional rules. Results demonstrated the compatibility of particular interactions between coaches’ and athletes’ strategies. Theoretical models from industrial/organizational psychology are used to interpret these results, which differ from conventional findings in the sport psychology literature.

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David W. Rainey, Nicholas R. Santilli and Kevin Fallon

This study examined baseball players' conceptions of umpires' authority. Eighty male players, ages 6-22 years, completed an abbreviated Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks (Furth, 1970), which was used to measure cognitive development. They then heard recorded scenarios describing conflicts with an umpire and a parent. Players indicated if they would argue with the authorities, why they obey the authorities (obedience), and why the authorities get to make decisions (legitimacy). Obedience and legitimacy responses were categorized into Damon's (1977) three levels. Measures of arguing, obedience, and legitimacy were analyzed for four age levels and three levels of cognitive development. Older and more cognitively developed players were more likely to argue with authorities. Conceptions of obedience and legitimacy were positively associated with age, though they were not related to scores of cognitive development. The positive relationship between age and authority conceptions and the absence of a relationship between cognitive development and authority conceptions are both consistent with Damon's position.

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Daniël Bossen, Cindy Veenhof, Joost Dekker and Dinny de Bakker

Background:

Despite well-documented health benefits, adults with a physical chronic condition do not meet the recommended physical activity (PA) guidelines. Therefore, secondary prevention programs focusing on PA are needed. Web-based interventions have shown promise in the promotion of PA behavior change. We conducted a systematic review to summarize the evidence about the effectiveness of web-based PA interventions in adults with chronic disease.

Methods:

Articles were included if they evaluated a web-based PA intervention and used a randomized design. Moreover, studies were eligible for inclusion if they used a non- or minimal-treatment control group and if PA outcomes measures were applied. Seven articles were included.

Results:

Three high-quality studies were statistically significant to the control group, whereas 2 high- and 2 low-quality studies reported nonsignificant findings.

Conclusion:

Our best evidence synthesis revealed that there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of web-based PA interventions in patients with a chronic disease.