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Younghan Lee and Jakeun Koo

The current study used a 2 × 2 analysis to explore the effect of athlete endorser-product congruence and endorser credibility on consumer responses, such as attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. Real people and actual brands were used as stimuli to enhance external validity and generalizability. Research results confirmed the interaction effects between athlete endorser-product congruence and endorser credibility on three specific consumer responses. The research further examined and identified the indirect path from attitude toward the advertisement and purchase intention, mediated by attitude toward the brand. The findings from the research fill gaps in the literature and extend the body of knowledge in endorsement studies in general and sport celebrity-endorsement studies in particular.

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Ding Ding, James F. Sallis, Gregory J. Norman, Lawrence D. Frank, Brian E. Saelens, Jacqueline Kerr, Terry L. Conway, Kelli Cain, Melbourne F. Hovell, C. Richard Hofstetter and Abby C. King

Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver’s license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults’ leisure walking.

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Dennis L. Smart and Richard A. Wolfe

This paper addresses the determinants of intercollegiate athletic program success. We built our arguments on a recent development in the strategic management literature, the Resource-Based View (RBV) of the firm. Our purpose was to investigate the source of sustainable intercollegiate athletic program success. In making our arguments, we briefly reviewed the RBV literature and addressed appropriate success criteria for intercollegiate athletics programs. An exploratory investigation of Pennsylvania State University's football program led to the conclusion that the resources responsible for its enduring competitive advantage are the history, relationships, trust, and organizational culture that have developed within the program's coaching staff. An organization that possesses such organizational resources may sustain a competitive advantage by exploiting its human and physical resources more completely than other organizations. The paper concludes with discussions of the potential generalizability of our findings, their implications for theory and practice, and suggested future research directions.

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Yukyoum Kim, Hyun-Woo Lee, Marshall J. Magnusen and Minjung Kim

Sponsorship is a significant element of today’s marketing communication. Nevertheless, managers and researchers lack of systematic and integrative understanding of key factors that influence sponsorship outcomes and the contexts in which the relationships between sponsorship effectiveness antecedents and outcomes are stronger or weaker. The authors attempt to address this gap by providing a systematic meta-analytic review of sponsorship effectiveness that incorporates (1) cognitive, affective, and conative consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes; (2) sponsor-related, dyadic, and sponsee-related antecedents to consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes; and (3) sponsorship-related and methodological moderators of the relationships between the three antecedent categories and three outcome categories. Our findings help assess the validity and robustness of the predictive capability of the antecedents, and they also offer a more generalizable and empirically established set of factors that are vital to the achievement of key sponsorship outcomes. Several of our results afford noteworthy implications for improving the effectiveness of sponsorship research and practice.

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Youngdeok Kim, Ilhyeok Park and Minsoo Kang

The purpose of this study was to investigate rater effects on the TGMD-2 when it applied to children with intellectual disability. A total of 22 children with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. Children’s performances in each of 12 subtests of the TGMD-2 were recorded via video and scored by three adapted physical activity specialists who have expertise in the TGMD-2. Two advanced measurement theories, Generalizability-theory (G-theory) and many-facet Rasch model (MFRM), were applied in data analyses. There were relatively large variances attributed to rater effects on the scores of the TGMD-2 awarded to children with intellectual disabilities. The severity of each rater significantly differed across all subtests of the TGMD-2. There was a set of biased ratings interacted with measurement conditions of the TGMD-2.

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Elizabeth G. Eakin, Ben J. Smith and Adrian E. Bauman


This article evaluates the extent to which the literature on primary care-based physical activity interventions informs the translation of research into practice and identifies priorities for future research.


Relevant databases were searched for: (1) descriptive studies of physician barriers to physical activity counseling (n = 8), and (2) reviews of the literature on primary care-based physical activity intervention studies (n = 9). The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation.


Lack of time, limited patient receptiveness, lack of remuneration, and limited counseling skills are the predominant barriers to physical activity counselling. Issues of internal validity (i.e., effectiveness and implementation) have received much more attention in the literature than have issues of external validity (i.e., reach and adoption).


The research agenda for primary care-based physical activity interventions needs greater attention to the feasibility of adoption by busy primary care staff, generalizability, and dissemination.

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L. R. Brawley, R. C. Powers and K. A. Phillips

This experiment examined if a general expectancy for male superiority biased subjective evaluation of motor performance. Alternatively, sex bias could be specific to tasks involving muscular work. If the former, rather than the latter explanation is viable, a bias favoring males would be generalized to a task not obviously sex typed: motor accuracy. Observers, 22 of each sex, watched the softball pitching accuracy of performers of both sexes. Performer accuracy was trained and tested to ensure equality. Observers estimated preperformance accuracy, then observed three throws, estimating postperformance after each. Unlike the muscular endurance experiments, neither preperformance nor postperformance analysis revealed a sex bias. Thus a task-specific expectancy rather than general expectancy for male superiority was suggested to explain evaluation sex bias of previous muscular endurance experiments. Surprisingly, mean error magnitude of postperformance estimates was significantly greater for performers observed second than those viewed first, although actual performer accuracy was not different. This finding appears analogous to psychophysical judgment results in which successive stimulus judgments were conditions sufficient to cause estimation error. Suggestions are made for future research.

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Heather Fahsl and Shannon David

During the fall preseason of 2013, a 19-year-old Division I linebacker (body mass = 104 kg; height = 189 cm) attending a college football camp developed severe throat pain, quickly followed by night sweats, fever, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, and generalized body weakness. The athletic trainer believed that the athlete had a cold. Because symptoms did not improve, the athlete was referred to several physicians with different specialties and underwent standard testing. The ears, nose, and throat (ENT) physician recognized the signs and symptoms of Lemierre’s syndrome based on a previous case seen only once in his career. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a peritonsillar abscess and thrombosis of the left internal jugular vein, which justified further investigation for this rare syndrome. A positive blood culture for Fusobacterium necrophorum confirmed the diagnosis of Lemierre’s syndrome. Several antibiotics and anticoagulation medications were prescribed and the athlete was closely monitored. After two months, he was cleared to play football.

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Annelies Knoppers, Marvin Zuidema and Barbara Bedker Meyer

The Webb Scale (1969) has been used in much of the research focusing on the professionalization of attitudes via sport. The results of such studies seemed to indicate that the extent to which winning was valued varied by age, gender, and type of sport involvement. However, these findings may in part have been a function of the noncontextual nature of the Webb Scale. In addition, the use of ranking methodology may have forced game orientation into an artificial bipolar continuum bounded by play orientation on one end and professional orientation at the other end. In the current study, the results of the administration of the Webb Scale and the Game Orientation Scale (Knoppers, Schuiteman, & Love, 1986) to 312 youngsters were compared across gender and degree of athletic experience. The Game Orientation Scale uses descriptions of two different sport scenarios and 5-point Likert scales to assess game orientation. The results revealed that game orientation was multidimensional, that the Webb Scale’s validity was questionable, and that professionalization was more a function of measurement and of the type of setting than of a generalized inherent attitude.

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Tobias Kalenscher, Karl-Theodor Kalveram and Jürgen Konczak

This study investigated force adaptation in humans during goal-directed flexion forearm motion. The ability of the motor system to adapt to changes in internal or external forces is essential for the successful control of voluntary movement. In a first experiment, we examined how under- or overdamping differentially affected the length of the adaptation and the arm kinematics between force transitions. We found that transitions diverging from a null-force produced larger transition effects than transitions converging to a null force condition, indicating that re-adaptation was less error-prone. Whether the subjects had previously experienced underdamping or the null-force had no significant impact on the spatial trajectory after switching to overdamping. That is, prior force experience had no differential effect on the spatial transition kinematics. However, the transitions underdamping-to-overdamping and underdamping-to–null force did produce differently strong transition effects. These results indicate that exposure to the new force rather than previous force-field experience is responsible for transition- and after-effects. In a second experiment, we investigated whether learning was law-like—that is, whether it generalized to unvisited workspace. Subjects were tested in new, unvisited workspaces in the null-force condition after sufficient training in either force condition. The occurrence of transferred after-effects indicated that adaptation to both positive and negative damping was mediated by rule-based rather than exclusive associative processes.