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Robert T. Pearson, Timothy Baghurst and Mwarumba Mwavita

). The reasons for this are varied but can include feelings of isolation due to a lack of female peers, gender harassment, imbalanced coaching loads, and less perceived opportunity for advancement in a male-dominated field ( Gehring, 2002 ; Hindman & Walker, 2020 ; Reade, Rogers, & Norman, 2009

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Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Ricardo Tanhoffer, Martim Bottaro and Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

not provided. 7 We found that the peak torque ratios of tetraplegic individuals were inverted for elbow extension/flexion and shoulder flexion/extension, indicative of an imbalance between agonist and antagonist muscles. It is possible to assume that the impaired triceps brachii muscle reduced the

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Shaun O’Leary, Carlijn Hoogma, Øystein Molland Solberg, Sara Sundberg, Ashley Pedler and Luke Van Wyk

that strength performance imbalances between the cervical extensor and flexor muscles may occur in some females with idiopathic neck pain. The findings of significant endurance deficits for the flexors (cervicothoracic and craniocervical) but not the extensors in the current study are also in contrast

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Steven Eustace, Richard Michael Page and Matt Greig

that eccKF and conKE peak at different knee joint angles. 7 These ratios therefore negate consideration of angle-matched torques, and also the consideration of ipsilateral imbalances in an extended position, where ACL injuries have previously been identified to most likely occur. 14 Previous studies

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Miguel A. Sanchez-Lastra, Kyle J. Miller, Rodolfo I. Martínez-Lemos, Antón Giráldez and Carlos Ayán

. 1 The fundamental cause is an imbalance in energy intake between calories consumed and calories expended. To prevent this imbalance, limiting calorie consumption and engaging in regular physical activity are key factors. Physical activity, in addition to the increase in energy expenditure

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Anthony Birat, David Sebillaud, Pierre Bourdier, Eric Doré, Pascale Duché, Anthony J. Blazevich, Dimitrios Patikas and Sébastien Ratel

landing phase of a jump. The onset of adolescence (ie, around the peak height velocity [PHV]) is a particularly critical period for injuries because of (1) imbalances within muscle-tendon units of young athletes, (2) strength imbalances between the hamstrings and quadriceps, particularly in post

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Daniel Martin, Craig Sale, Simon B. Cooper and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

liver function 1 0.5 Effect on training/performance 2 0.9 Bloating 1 0.5 Reduced bloating 1 0.5 Hormone imbalance 1 0.5 Improved bone density 1 0.5 Increased appetite 1 0.5 Less faint 1 0.5 Stomach pain 1 0.5 Reduced fluctuations in water retention 1 0.5 Unspecified pain 1 0.5 Reduced fluctuations in

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Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen and Øyvind Sandbakk

, such as frequent travels, media, and sponsors that could further increase the stress–recovery imbalance. 8 Therefore, most researchers emphasize the importance of a holistic approach to treating an overtraining condition, 15 , 17 where not only training load but also recovery routines (eg

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Nathan A. Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore and Charles R. Pedlar

complexity of the condition, the multifactorial etiology, and the fact that imbalances between training load and recovery may not be the primary reason for the condition. 1 Exercise is a source of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS), leading to alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). 3 RNOS are

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Giovanna Ghiani, Sara Magnani, Azzurra Doneddu, Gianmarco Sainas, Virginia Pinna, Marco Caboi, Girolamo Palazzolo, Filippo Tocco and Antonio Crisafulli

previous research involving 15 elite sailors during the America’s Cup, none of the athletes showed any variation in BM or percentage of fat during the period of observation ( Bernardi et al., 2007a ), thereby indicating that energy turnover was in good balance and that any imbalance in the nutritional