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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Wantong Fu

level were reported for the “built-up area” in each city, which included the city as well as the suburban region surrounding it. Meanwhile, income was reported in Chinese yuan and adjusted for inflation to 2017 levels. 2 Additionally, the Rivalry dummy variable was created to measure the presence of

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Chad Seifried, Brian Soebbing and Kwame J.A. Agyemang

recession that began in the mid to late 1970s. High unemployment and inflation and rising debt from shrinking tax bases extended into the 1980s. 75 Resultantly, many cities increased their fees for “city services such as police, garbage collection, and fire and ambulance standbys”, which were necessary for

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James Du, Heather Kennedy, Jeffrey D. James and Daniel C. Funk

.g., word-of-mouth intention vs. event return intention), that is, removal of a specific indicator would affect the meaning of the construct of behavioral intention ( Du et al., 2014 ). The results from the structural regression analysis suggested none of the variance inflation factor exceeded the common cut-off threshold of

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Thilo Kunkel, Daniel C. Funk and Daniel Lock

 al., 2013 ). The PLS-SEM model was assessed using guidelines recommended by Hair et al. ( 2011 ). To evaluate formative constructs, multicollinearity (each indicator’s variance inflation factor [VIF] < 5; Hair et al., 2011 ) and validity (parameter estimates for each formative indicator should be

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Bram Constandt, Els De Waegeneer and Annick Willem

no questionable results, as variation inflation factors were around 1 and tolerance values were considerably higher than 0.02 ( Field, 2009 ). The trustworthiness of the presumed indirect (mediation) effect of ethical climate was evaluated by bootstrapping, a significance test for mediation

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Thilo Kunkel, Rui Biscaia, Akiko Arai and Kwame Agyemang

multicollinearity examined whether each indicator’s variance inflation factor was less than the recommended threshold of 5, and tests for validity examined whether the parameter estimates for each indicator was statistically significant (at the 5% level) after a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure of 5

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Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato, Kevin Filo, James Du and Daniel C. Funk

independent and dependent variables helps diminish such inflation by reducing respondents’ ability and motivation to provide similar patterns of responses for both variables ( Podsakoff et al., 2003 ). A time lag of 8 days was deemed appropriate because a shorter time lag would be unlikely to reduce

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Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen and Thomas Schack

-subjects factor and time of measurement as within-subjects factor. Independent- as well as dependent-samples t tests served as tests of significance for subsequent analyses. In order to account for the inflation of Type I errors, we employed a Holm–Bonferroni correction ( Holm, 1979 ). As an estimate of effect

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Lena Hübner, Solveig Vieluf, Ben Godde and Claudia Voelcker-Rehage

indicating no significant correlation (Table  5 ), was included in the regression analyses because of the high relevance in aging studies and the high age range of 16 years (67–83 years of age) in our sample. The regression models were controlled for multicollinearity by calculating the variance inflation

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James Stephenson, Colum Cronin and Amy E. Whitehead

-paced decisions ( Raab & Johnson, 2008 ). When these decisions are made quickly, there is very little conscious attention to the available options prior to the decision being made. Therefore, if this autonomous process is not examined at different time points, self-biases and potential ego inflations may go