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Momoko Yamagata, Ali Falaki and Mark L. Latash

. In panel a, the dashed line shows the overall joint torque–angle characteristic. The control can be expressed with two pairs of control variables, activation thresholds for the two muscles (λ AG and λ ANT ) and the reciprocal command ( r ) and coactivation command ( c ). Panels a and b illustrate

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Jocelyn F. Hafer, Mark S. Miller, Jane A. Kent and Katherine A. Boyer

funding for this study was provided by an American College of Sports Medicine Foundation Doctoral Research Grant (JFH) . The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. DeVita P , Hortobagyi T . Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . J Appl Physiol . 2000

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Cameron T. Gibbons, Polemnia G. Amazeen and Aaron D. Likens

. This implies that (a) participants relied equally well on visual and haptic (through the feet) feedback to position themselves in what felt like a “stable” position or (b) the optimal position was one in which joint torque was minimized; this was determined by biomechanical constraints, like size

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri and Morteza Taghipour

study suggested that low seat height can increase L5–S1 joint ROM during STS. 49 Besides, it has been reported that low seat height can result in an increase in the amount of paraspinal muscles activation and in the L5–S1 peak net joint torque compared with high and neutral seat heights. 49 Hence

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Konstantina Katsoulis, Liza Stathokostas and Catherine E. Amara

a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait . Journal of Applied Physiology, 88 ( 5 ), 1804 – 1811 . PubMed ID: 10797145 doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804 de Vos , N.J. , Singh , N.A. , Ross , D.A. , Stavrinos , T.M. , Orr , R. , & Fiatarone