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Meg E. Letton, Jeanette M. Thom and Rachel E. Ward

: ↓ body fat (11.7%), ↑ lean body mass (5.7%) Hormones: ↑ testosterone (19.7%), ↓ cortisol (2.5%) 8 Hedgepeth (1987) 20 Dancers enrolled in a ballet class. Years training: 2 9 18–23 Barre exercises (25–30 min) including stretching, center work (45–50 min) including balancing and jumping 1.5 h, 3 d/wk 8

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Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika and Laurent Bosquet

body mass and upper body maximal strength were reported between interventions (RT or RT + HIIT). Contrary to previous research, 6 these results suggested that a cycling intervention could lead to more strength impairments than a running program but the authors did not provide any insights about

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Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak and Mandy E. Parra

– 11 . PubMed ID: 27569681 doi: 10.1038/ijo.2016.151 15. Fantuzzi G . Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation . J Allergy Clin Immunol . 2005 ; 115 ( 5 ): 911 – 9 . doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2005.02.023 15867843 16. Forbes GB . Lean body mass and fat in obese children . Pediatrics . 1964

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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

.1* , ** Note . LIRET = low-intensity resistance exercise training; BMI = body mass index; LBM = lean body mass; BF = body fat. Data are mean ± SEM. * p  < .01 different than before. ** p  < .01 different than control. Autonomic variables at baseline and after 12 weeks for the control and LIRET groups are

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Abby L. Cheng, John A. Merlo, Devyani Hunt, Ted Yemm, Robert H. Brophy and Heidi Prather

female youth ice hockey athletes who had reached menarche compared with those who had not, with an incidence rate ratio of 4.1 (95% CI, 1.0–16.8). These findings are notable because although BMI is not an ideal measure of fat versus lean body mass, body composition is modifiable and further investigation

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

, high variability) is related to a leaner body composition compared with no activity. This supports the recommendation that doing some physical activity is better than doing no physical activity for maintaining a lean body mass. This study also found that greater average caloric intake was associated with greater

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Gustavo Monnerat, Carlos A.R. Sánchez, Caleb G.M. Santos, Dailson Paulucio, Rodolfo Velasque, Geisa P.C. Evaristo, Joseph A.M. Evaristo, Fabio C.S. Nogueira, Gilberto B. Domont, Mauricio Serrato, Antonio S. Lima, David Bishop, Antonio C. Campos de Carvalho and Fernando A.M.S. Pompeu

; 206 ( 4 ): 242 – 250 . doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2012.02471.x 49. Kim CH , Wheatley CM , Behnia M , Johnson BD . The effect of aging on relationships between lean body mass and VO 2 max in rowers . PLoS One . 2016 ; 11 ( 8 ): e0160275 . PubMed ID: 27479009 doi: 10.1371/journal

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

mass (kg) Body mass DXA (kg) Lean body mass (kg) BMI (kg/m 2 ) VO 2 peak (LO 2 /min) Relative VO 2 peak (LO 2 ·min −1 ·kg −1 ) Energy (MJ/day) Protein (g/day) Carbohydrate (g/day) Fat (g/day) Sessions (per week) Duration (min/week) Distance (km/week) CHO 26.3 ± 6.8 74.0 ± 7.0 74.9 ± 7.0 65.7 ± 6.5 21

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

. CHO = carbohydrate; HIT = high-intensity training; LIT = low-intensity training. Nutrition Interventions During the experimental trials, a standardized daily CHO intake of 6 (females) or 8 g/kg body mass (males) was consumed, with differences attributed to disparities in lean body mass and habitual

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Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, Leif Olav Alnes, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk and Gertjan Ettema

body mass: 70.4 [4.8] kg, fat mass: 9.7% [1.4%], and 100-m personal best: 10.86 [0.22] s) voluntarily signed up for this study. The athletes had performed sprint training for 9 (4) years. All athletes were healthy and free of injuries at the time of testing. The Norwegian Data Protection Authority