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Ellen Freiberger, Elisabeth Rydwik, Astrid Chorus, Erwin Tak, Christophe Delecluse, Federico Schena, Nina Waaler, Bob Laventure and Nico van Meeteren

. PLoS ONE, 10 ( 2 ), e0118293 . PubMed 10.1371/journal.pone.0118293 Peterson , M.D. , Sen , A. , & Gordon , P.M. ( 2011 ). Influence of resistance exercise on lean body mass in aging adults: A meta-analysis . Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43 , 249 – 258 . PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS

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Ryan G. Timmins, Baubak Shamim, Paul J. Tofari, Jack T. Hickey and Donny M. Camera

body mass. Participants were then allocated to either RT (n = 10), END (n = 10), or CONC (n = 12) for the 12-week intervention. For the duration of the study, participants consumed a high-protein diet of 2 g/kg/d, which was confirmed through weekly food logs submitted to the researchers. 14

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Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger and Brad Jon Schoenfeld

training in overweight women on a ketogenic diet conserved lean body mass while reducing body fat . Nutrition & Metabolism, 7 , 17 . PubMed doi:10.1186/1743-7075-7-17 10.1186/1743-7075-7-17 Josse , A.R. , Atkinson , S.A. , Tarnopolsky , M.A. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2011 ). Increased consumption

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Michele Merlini, Greg Whyte, Sam Marcora, Mike Loosemore, Neil Chester and John Dickinson

detect changes in muscle mass. By using other means of measuring changes in body composition (eg, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), we may have detected changes in muscle mass. In a recent study by Jessen et al, 9 they observed a significant increase in lean body mass of 1.03–1.04 kg as detected by

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

essential amino acids throughout the day can help maintain lean body mass and muscle strength during periods of suboptimal caloric intake ( Pasiakos et al., 2013 ; Phillips, 2013 ; Rodriguez, 2013 ). Students consumed a mean fat intake of 1.6 ± 0.4 g·kg −1 ·day −1 (42% ± 5.5% total calories) (RC) and 1

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Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika and Laurent Bosquet

body mass and upper body maximal strength were reported between interventions (RT or RT + HIIT). Contrary to previous research, 6 these results suggested that a cycling intervention could lead to more strength impairments than a running program but the authors did not provide any insights about

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Alexei Wong and Arturo Figueroa

.1* , ** Note . LIRET = low-intensity resistance exercise training; BMI = body mass index; LBM = lean body mass; BF = body fat. Data are mean ± SEM. * p  < .01 different than before. ** p  < .01 different than control. Autonomic variables at baseline and after 12 weeks for the control and LIRET groups are

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Meg E. Letton, Jeanette M. Thom and Rachel E. Ward

: ↓ body fat (11.7%), ↑ lean body mass (5.7%) Hormones: ↑ testosterone (19.7%), ↓ cortisol (2.5%) 8 Hedgepeth (1987) 20 Dancers enrolled in a ballet class. Years training: 2 9 18–23 Barre exercises (25–30 min) including stretching, center work (45–50 min) including balancing and jumping 1.5 h, 3 d/wk 8

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

of LEA, evenly distributed intake of protein (20–30 g every 3–4 hr) may support the maintenance of lean body mass and improve satiety ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ). Throws Shot put Hammer Discus Javelin Physique requirements: A high body mass and BMI, moderate muscularity. Strong arms and legs, larger

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

(EI; Loucks, 2004 ). Since fat-free mass (FFM) has a greater capacity for energy expenditure than fat mass, it is intuitive to express EA relative to FFM (or lean body mass [LBM]) rather than total body mass, yielding the equation ( Loucks, 2004 ): EA = ( EI − EEE ) / FFM . Ideally, an athlete’s EI