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Thomas Haugen, Jørgen Danielsen, Leif Olav Alnes, David McGhie, Øyvind Sandbakk and Gertjan Ettema

body mass: 70.4 [4.8] kg, fat mass: 9.7% [1.4%], and 100-m personal best: 10.86 [0.22] s) voluntarily signed up for this study. The athletes had performed sprint training for 9 (4) years. All athletes were healthy and free of injuries at the time of testing. The Norwegian Data Protection Authority

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Mads S. Larsen, Dagmar Clausen, Astrid Ank Jørgensen, Ulla R. Mikkelsen and Mette Hansen

mass (kg) Body mass DXA (kg) Lean body mass (kg) BMI (kg/m 2 ) VO 2 peak (LO 2 /min) Relative VO 2 peak (LO 2 ·min −1 ·kg −1 ) Energy (MJ/day) Protein (g/day) Carbohydrate (g/day) Fat (g/day) Sessions (per week) Duration (min/week) Distance (km/week) CHO 26.3 ± 6.8 74.0 ± 7.0 74.9 ± 7.0 65.7 ± 6.5 21

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Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer

, researchers have looked at other activities such as soccer, basketball, and ice hockey, concluding that female athletes may be at a greater risk for concussion than males ( Dick, 2009 ). This might be a result of differences in lean body mass, head mass, strength of the neck muscles, or physiological

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

, high variability) is related to a leaner body composition compared with no activity. This supports the recommendation that doing some physical activity is better than doing no physical activity for maintaining a lean body mass. This study also found that greater average caloric intake was associated with greater

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Senda Sammoud, Alan Michael Nevill, Yassine Negra, Raja Bouguezzi, Helmi Chaabene and Younés Hachana

authors revealed that lean body mass was the singularly most important whole-body characteristic and that having greater limb segment length ratios (ie, arm ratio = lower arm/upper arm; foot-to-leg ratio = foot/lower leg) was key to personal best front crawl swim speeds. Likewise, Sammoud et al ( 40

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Panagiota Klentrou, Kirina Angrish, Nafisa Awadia, Nigel Kurgan, Rozalia Kouvelioti and Bareket Falk

10.2 (0.4) 10.5 (0.4) .23 Height, cm 142.6 (2.0) 146.5 (3.3) .17 Body mass, kg 34.4 (1.5) 38.4 (2.8) .14 Body mass index, kg·m −2 16.9 (0.6) 17.6 (0.5) .34 Body fat, % 12.0 (1.7) 15.0 (2.4) .39 Lean body mass, kg 30.2 (1.2) 26.2 (4.0)* .03 Age from peak height velocity, y −2.9 (0.2) −0.9 (0.4)* .03

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squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1, but not in group 2. In the control group, an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

(EI; Loucks, 2004 ). Since fat-free mass (FFM) has a greater capacity for energy expenditure than fat mass, it is intuitive to express EA relative to FFM (or lean body mass [LBM]) rather than total body mass, yielding the equation ( Loucks, 2004 ): EA = ( EI − EEE ) / FFM . Ideally, an athlete’s EI

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

of LEA, evenly distributed intake of protein (20–30 g every 3–4 hr) may support the maintenance of lean body mass and improve satiety ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ). Throws Shot put Hammer Discus Javelin Physique requirements: A high body mass and BMI, moderate muscularity. Strong arms and legs, larger

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

.A. ( 1988 ). Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass . Journal of Applied Physiology, 64 ( 1 ), 187 – 193 . PubMed ID: 3356636 doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2016