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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte

warm-up (5 min on a motorized treadmill at 10 kph). The 3-km time trials were performed under controlled laboratory conditions of 18°C, 20.9% O 2 , and 40% humidity. During the time trial, participants wore a heart rate (HR) monitor (Polar RS400; Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) and a face mask

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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

. Participants were allowed to fidget but not walk around during the standing position. Oxygen Consumption A face mask was placed around the mouth and nose to measure gas exchange. Oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 ) and the production of carbon dioxide ( V ˙ CO 2 ) were measured using a respirometer (MetaMax 3B

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Justin Kompf

standpoint, the RAI may mask the distinct effects of different types of regulations on behavior. 54 The study by Brickell and Chatzisarantis 37 was the only research to examine the implementation intentions and specific behavioral regulation for exercise. Identified regulation had an indirect effect on

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Sarah J. Willis, Grégoire P. Millet and Fabio Borrani

description that follows), which was performed to create a cycling baseline to normalize the NIRS with a more stable and reliable signal than a resting baseline. Thereafter, participants took a short break of 5 minutes to recover, while placing the oxygen uptake mask and pulse oxygen saturation probe, and a 6

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Richard J. Boergers, Thomas G. Bowman, Nicole Sgherza, Marguerite Montjoy, Melanie Lu and Christopher W. O’Brien

( 1 ): 42 – 48 . PubMed ID: 24377964 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-48.6.11 10.4085/1062-6050-48.6.11 24377964 11. Swartz E , Mihalik J , Beltz N , Day M , Decoster L . Face mask removal is safer than helmet removal for emergent airway access in American football . Spine J . 2014 ; 14 : 996

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Heidi R. Thornton, Jace A. Delaney, Grant M. Duthie and Ben J. Dascombe

chronic sleep deprivation, masking the effect of alterations in training requirements on subsequent sleep. As such, future research could investigate the objective and subjective sleep characteristics and subjective wellness of team-sport athletes who regularly obtain sufficient sleep during intensified

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Elizabeth F. Teel, Stephen W. Marshall, L. Gregory Appelbaum, Claudio L. Battaglini, Kevin A. Carneiro, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, Johna K. Register-Mihalik and Jason P. Mihalik

for a respiratory mask, and seat height was adjusted for proper pedaling mechanics on the cycle ergometer. Participants underwent the earliest stages of the CPET following a warm-up at no resistance to minimize any learning effect associated with subsequent CPET administrations. Test sessions were

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Jules Woolf and Jess C. Dixon

decision making ( Ito & Urland, 2003 ). Under such conditions, people may engage in casuistry to mask questionable behavior (i.e., sexism or racism) to avoid the appearance of being biased ( Norton, Vandello, & Darley, 2004 ). The complete candidate profiles were pilot tested with three colleagues who were

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Nancy Getchell, Nadja Schott and Ali Brian

Control Designs The notion of age as an independent variable is both inherent and problematic within cross-sectional designs because there is an underlying assumption that all children within an age group are somehow the same. Using age as an independent variable masks individual differences in motor

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

 al., 2018a ). Table 4 Summary of Caffeine Supplementation and Performance of Distance Events Overview (see Burke, 2008 ; Southward et al., 2018a ; Spriet, 2014 ) Mechanism of action • Adenosine receptor antagonist with a large range of effects • Major effects during endurance exercise include masking of