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Mauro Virgílio Gomes de Barros, Markus Vinicius Nahas, Pedro Curi Hallal, José Cazuza de Farias Júnior, Alex Antônio Florindo and Simone Storino Honda de Barros

Background:

We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention on the promotion of physical activity among high school students in Brazil: the Saude na Boa project.

Methods:

A school-based, randomized trial was carried out in 2 Brazilian cities: Recife (northeast) and Florianopolis (south). Ten schools in each city were matched by size and location, and randomized into intervention or control groups. The intervention included environmental/organizational changes, physical activity education, and personnel training and engagement. Students age 15 to 24 years were evaluated at baseline and 9 months later (end of school year).

Results:

Although similar at baseline, after the intervention, the control group reported significantly fewer d/wk accumulating 60 minutes+ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in comparison with the intervention group (2.6 versus 3.3, P < .001). The prevalence of inactivity (0 days per week) rose in the control and decreased in the intervention group. The odds ratio for engaging at least once per week in physical activity associated with the intervention was 1.83 (95% CI = 1.24–2.71) in the unadjusted analysis and 1.88 (95% CI = 1.27–2.79) after controlling for gender.

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Vitor Lopes, Lisa Barnett and Luís Rodrigues

The purpose is to explore relationships among moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB), and actual gross motor competence (MC) and perceived motor competence (PMC) in young children. Data were collected in 101 children (M age = 4.9 ± 0.93 years). MVPA was measured with accelerometry. Gross MC was assessed with the Portuguese version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. PMC was evaluated with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Regressions were used to determine predictive relationships related to the following research questions: (a) Can gross MC predict perceived motor competence, (b) can actual and perceived gross MC predict MVPA, and (c) can actual and perceived gross MC predict SB? Results showed no association between gross MC and PMC and between these constructs and MVPA and SB. This lack of association in the early ages is probably due to the young children’s cognitive inability to make accurate self-judgments and evaluations. A child might have low levels of actual gross MC but perceive her- or himself as skillful.

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Tim Olds, Carol Ann Maher and Kate Ridley

Background:

Low physical activity has been associated with increased fatness and deceased fitness. This observational study aimed to describe the magnitude, composition, and time-distribution of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Australian children.

Methods:

A total of 1132 10 to 13 year old schoolchildren completed a 24-h activity recall diary on 2 to 4 occasions. MVPA was defined as any activity requiring ≥3METs, including sport, play, active transport, chores, and other activities.

Results:

MVPA was higher in boys than girls (173 vs 140 min/day; P < .0001), higher on nonschool days than school days (166 vs 143 min/day; P < .0001), and decreased with age (9 min/day per year of age). MVPA consisted of structured sport (37%), active transport (26%), unstructured play (24%), and chores/miscellaneous activities (13%). Every hour of MVPA was associated with a reduction in screen time (26.5 min), non-screen-based sedentary pastimes (8 min), and sleep (5.5 min). The least active quartile of children were more likely to be girls (OR = 3.4), have higher screen time, and sleep more. From 4:00−6:30 PM on school days there were large differences in participation between high-active and low-active children.

Conclusion:

Findings suggest MVPA interventions should target girls, screen time and focus on the after-school period.

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Miguel A. Calabro, Gregory J. Welk, Alicia L. Carriquiry, Sarah M. Nusser, Nicholas K. Beyler and Charles E. Matthews

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a computerized 24-hour physical activity recall instrument (24PAR).

Methods:

Participants (n = 20) wore 2 pattern-recognition activity monitors (an IDEEA and a SenseWear Pro Armband) for a 24-hour period and then completed the 24PAR the following morning. Participants completed 2 trials, 1 while maintaining a prospective diary of their activities and 1 without a diary. The trials were counterbalanced and completed within a week from each other. Estimates of energy expenditure (EE) and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were compared with the criterion measures using 3-way (method by gender by trial) mixed-model ANOVA analyses.

Results:

For EE, pairwise correlations were high (r > .88), and there were no differences in estimates across methods. Estimates of MVPA were more variable, but correlations were still in the moderate to high range (r > .57). Average activity levels were significantly higher on the logging trial, but there was no significant difference in the accuracy of self-report on days with and without logging.

Conclusions:

The results of this study support the overall utility of the 24PAR for group-level estimates of daily EE and MVPA.

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Noe C. Crespo, Kirsten Corder, Simon Marshall, Gregory J. Norman, Kevin Patrick, James F. Sallis and John P. Elder

Background:

Girls are less physically active than boys, yet no single study has examined the factors that may explain gender differences in children’s physical activity (PA).

Methods:

This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data from 116 caregivers and their children aged 5–8 years who participated in the MOVE study. Caregivers reported various factors that may relate to children’s PA (eg, encouragement for child PA and PA equipment at home). Child PA was measured by 7-day accelerometry. Linear regression tested for the variance in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) explained by gender and several variables. Gender and ethnicity interactions were examined.

Results:

Caregivers were mostly female (97%), mean age 38 ± 6 years, mean BMI 28 ± 6 (kg/m2). Child’s mean age was 8.1 ± 0.7, 54% were female and 40% were overweight/obese. Girls were less physically active than boys (54.1 ± 19.7 vs. 65.2 ± 28.0 daily minutes of MVPA, respectively). Among girls, more days of PE/week was associated with greater MVPA. Among boys, greater parent support for PA, greater parent modeling for PA, and greater number of PA equipment in the home were associated with greater MVPA.

Conclusions:

This study supports that boys and girls have different correlates for MVPA, which may partly explain gender differences in PA.

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Susanne James-Burdumy, Nicholas Beyler, Kelley Borradaile, Martha Bleeker, Alyssa Maccarone and Jane Fortson

Background:

The Playworks program places coaches in low-income urban schools to engage students in physical activity during recess. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact of Playworks on students’ physical activity separately for Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic white students.

Methods:

Twenty-seven schools from 6 cities were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. Accelerometers were used to measure the intensity of students’ physical activity, the number of steps taken, and the percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during recess. The impact of Playworks was estimated by comparing average physical activity outcomes in treatment and control groups.

Results:

Compared with non-Hispanic black students in control schools, non-Hispanic black students in Playworks schools recorded 338 more intensity counts per minute, 4.9 more steps per minute, and 6.3 percentage points more time in MVPA during recess. Playworks also had an impact on the number of steps per minute during recess for Hispanic students but no significant impact on the physical activity of non-Hispanic white students.

Conclusions:

The impact of Playworks was larger among minority students than among non-Hispanic white students. One possible explanation is that minority students in non-Playworks schools typically engaged in less physical activity, suggesting that there is more room for improvement.

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Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Timoteo Leandro Araujo, Luis Oliveira, Victor Matsudo, Emily Mire, Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

Studies have found an association between television (TV) viewing and physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between TV viewing and physical activity in 10-year-old Brazilian children.

Methods:

The sample consisted of 485 children. Self-reported TV viewing on weekdays and weekends was assessed by questionnaire. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor the range of physical activity intensities (including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB) and steps/day over 7 days.

Results:

Daily MVPA was highest among children viewing TV <1 hour/day (69 min) compared with children viewing 1 to 2 hours/day (61 min), 3 to 4 hours/day (55 min) and ≥ 5 hours/day (59 min) on weekdays (P = .0015). Differences in MVPA were not observed across TV categories on weekends. The prevalence of reaching 60 min/day of MVPA and 12,000 steps/day on weekdays was significantly greater in children viewing ≤ 2 hours/day (51.7% and 23.5%, respectively) compared with those viewing > 2 hours/day (38.6%, P = .0058; and 15.1%, P = .0291, respectively). There was no difference in SB across TV viewing categories.

Conclusion:

Time spent in MVPA and the frequency of meeting MVPA guidelines were significantly higher among children viewing ≤ 2 hours/day of TV on weekdays compared with those viewing more.

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Oscar Mac Ananey, Brendan McLoughlin, Ann Leonard, Lewena Maher, Peter Gaffney, Gerard Boran and Vincent Maher

Background:

Several obesity related factors are reported to exacerbate premature arterial stiffening, including inactivity and metabolic disarray. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between physical activity, arterial stiffness and adiposity using objective methods. To further explore the role of adiposity in this complex process, obesity associated anthropometric and humoral biomarkers were measured.

Methods:

Seventy-nine healthy, lifelong nonsmoking subjects were recruited. Habitual physical activity was measured using accelerometry. Arterial stiffness [augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV)] was measured using tonometry. Body composition was estimated using bioimpedence. Adipose associated biomarkers, leptin and adiponectin, were also measured.

Results:

Sedentary time was significantly associated with AIx (r = 0.38, P < .001), PWV (r = 0.33, P < .01), body fat composition (r = 0.40, P < .001) and age (r = 0.30, P < .01). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely correlated with AIx (r = –0.28, P < .05), body fat composition (r = –0.30, P < .01), postprandial insulin (r = –0.35, P < .01), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (r = –0.28, P < .05). MVPA, body fat composition, and postprandial insulin remained independent predictors of AIx but not PWV.

Conclusion:

The more time healthy individuals spend being sedentary, the greater their body fat and arterial stiffness. Conversely higher activity levels are associated with reduced body fat and less arterial stiffness.

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Nate McCaughtry, Donetta Cothran, Joe Dake and Gail Fahoome

The purpose of our study was to evaluate the ability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict African American children’s moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. Children (N = 548, ages 9–12) completed questionnaires assessing the TPB constructs and MVPA and then had their cardiorespiratory fitness assessed with the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test. Commonly used Structural Equation Modeling fit indices suggested the model was an adequate representation for the relationships within the data. However, results also suggested an extended model which was examined and supported. Tests of direct paths from subjective norm and control to intention indicated that both variables were significant predictors of intention. Furthermore, the impact of attitude on intention was mediated by both subjective norm and control. Finally MVPA predicted cardiorespiratory fitness. Most of the standardized path coefficients fell in the small to moderate range, with the strongest effects evident for the predictors of intention and the smallest effect evident for the link from MVPA to cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Mette S. Nielsen, Jonas S. Quist, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Stine-Mathilde Dalskov, Camilla T. Damsgaard, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Kim F. Michaelsen, Anders Sjödin and Mads F. Hjorth

Background:

Inflammatory markers, adiponectin, and movement/nonmovement behaviors have all been linked to risk factors for cardiovascular disease; however, the association between childhood movement/nonmovement behaviors and inflammatory markers and adiponectin is unknown.

Methods:

We explored the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated.

Results:

MVPA was negatively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (P < .001) and with CRP and IL-6 in girls (P < .05) independent of sleep duration, sedentary time, age, fat mass index (FMI), and pubertal status. Sedentary time was positively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (both P < .001), and sleep duration with adiponectin in boys independent of age, FMI, and pubertal status (P < .001); however, these associations disappeared after mutual adjustments for movement behavior. Sleep duration variability was positively associated with CRP in girls independent of all covariates (P < .01).

Conclusion:

MVPA remained negatively associated with inflammatory markers and adiponectin, and sleep duration variability positively associated with CRP after adjustment for FMI, pubertal status, and other movement behavior. The inverse association between MVPA and adiponectin conflicts with the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin.