This study evaluates the action of 20 selected arm and torso muscles. The subjects were 19 windsurfers of different skill levels. Muscular activity was recorded electromyographically, using surface electrodes. The subjects were standing on a specially devised windsurf simulator in order to keep the different surf postures as standardized as possible. Through two-way ANOVA techniques, the electromyographic activity relative to its maximal isometric value was compared for different muscles, surf postures, and skill levels. Also, differences between the left and right sides of the body were investigated. From the results, the following may be concluded: (a) As all muscles display rather low activity (an average of less than 20% of their maximal isometric values), windsurfing does not seem very demanding of muscular force. (b) The M. flexor carpi radialis, together with the M. erector spinae, tend to exhibit higher levels of activity for beginners, which suggests, respectively, a more rigid grip on the wishbone and stronger low back muscle activation in order to keep a correct posture, (c) Left–right asymmetries mainly occur for symmetrical body postures, especially for the M. flexor carpi radialis and the M. erector spinae. As for the M. trapezius (pars superior), experienced surfers tend to display a dominant right asymmetry, (d) Muscle activity does not exhibit significantly different values for various surf postures. However, typical deviating postures, as observed in beginners, may induce higher levels of muscle activation.
Bart Van Gheluwe, Paul Huybrechts and Erik Deporte
Se-yeon Park and Won-gyu Yoo
The purpose of this study was to measure muscle activation during ascending and descending phases of the push-up exercise on both stable and unstable support surfaces.
Fourteen asymptomatic male amateur badminton players. During push-up exercises on stable and unstable bases, muscle activation measurements were collected with phase divisions (ascending and descending phase).
Electromyography (EMG) was utilized to measure activation of the upper trapezius (UT) and lower trapezius (LT), middle serratus anterior (MSA) and lower serratus anterior (LSA), pectoralis major (PM), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles.
An unstable support surface produced significantly greater activation of the UT, LT, LSA, and PM muscles than a stable support surface (p < 0.05). The MSA, LSA, TB, and PM muscles demonstrated greater activation during the ascending phase than the descending phase of the push-up exercise (p < 0.05).
The unstable support surface appeared to produce relatively greater activation of the LSA than that of the MSA. The descending phase of the push-up did not demonstrate a higher level of activation for any of the muscles tested.
Sabine Felser, Martin Behrens, Susanne Fischer, Mario Baeumler, Ralf Salomon and Sven Bruhn
To investigate differences in muscle activation of both legs between the straight and the curve and changes in muscle activity during a 1000-m time trial (TT) and their relationship to the change in skating velocity in 9 young short-track speed skaters. The authors recorded skating times and EMG data from different leg muscles during maximum-effort skating trials on the straight and in the curve, as well as during a 1000-m TT.
Muscle activation differs between the straight and the curves and between legs; ie, average activities of selected muscles of the right leg were significantly higher during skating through the curves than in the straights. This could not be observed for the left leg. The reduction in speed during the 1000-m TT highly correlates with the decrease in the muscle activity of both the tibialis anterior and the rectus femoris of the right leg. Muscle recruitment is different in relation to lap section (straight vs curve) and leg (right vs left leg). The decreased muscle activity of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the right leg showed the highest relationships with the reduction in skating speed during the 1000-m TT.
Sondra G. Siegel, T. Richard Nichols and Timothy C. Cope
Cutaneous reflexes have been described primarily according to their actions in the flexion/extension plane. It is shown here, by measuring electromyography and isometric force in decerebrate cats, that ankle muscles are activated in relation to their actions in the abduction/adduction plane during sural nerve (SNR) and crossed-extension (XER) reflexes. Ankle adductors (tibialis posterior, extensor digitorum longus, and flexors digitorum and hallucis longus) were active in XER, but not in SNR. Muscles producing ankle abduction (medial and lateral gastrocnemii and peroneus longus and brevis) were often activated in both reflexes, and medial gastrocnemius and peroneus longus were consistently more strongly activated in SNR than in XER. This differential pattern of muscle activation results in greater abduction torque at the ankle in SNR than in XER. These data demonstrate reflex organization in relation to the multidirectional torque generated by individual muscles.
Angie Selseth, Marilyn Dayton, Mitchell L. Cordova, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Mark A. Merrick
To analyze vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle activity during the concentric and eccentric phases of a lateral step-up exercise.
Repeated-measures. Dependent variable: the integrated electromyogram measured as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the VMO and VL muscles. Independent variable: muscle contraction with 2 levels (concentric and eccentric).
Twenty-three volunteers with no previous history of knee surgery or anterior knee pain.
Surface electrodes were positioned over the VMO and VL, and electromyographic data were collected during the exercise.
The 2 muscle phases of contraction were different when both dependent variables were considered simultaneously (F 2,7 = 33.2, P < .001). Concentric contractions produced greater muscle activity for VL (P < .05) and VMO (P < .05).
Because concentric contractions produce greater activity than eccentric contractions do during the lateral step-up exercise, they provide a stronger stimulus for muscle activation, which might result in greater muscle strength gains.
Sangeetha Madhavan, Sarah Burkart, Gail Baggett, Katie Nelson, Trina Teckenburg, Mike Zwanziger and Richard K. Shields
Neuromuscular control strategies might change with age and predispose the elderly to knee-joint injury. The purposes of this study were to determine whether long latency responses (LLRs), muscle-activation patterns, and movement accuracy differ between the young and elderly during a novel single-limb-squat (SLS) task. Ten young and 10 elderly participants performed a series of resistive SLSs (~0–30°) while matching a computer-generated sinusoidal target. The SLS device provided a 16% body-weight resistance to knee movement. Both young and elderly showed significant overshoot error when the knee was perturbed (p < .05). Accuracy of the tracking task was similar between the young and elderly (p = .34), but the elderly required more muscle activity than the younger participants (p < .05). The elderly group had larger LLRs than the younger group (p < .05). These results support the hypothesis that neuromuscular control of the knee changes with age and might contribute to injury.
Shinya Fujii, Kazutoshi Kudo, Masahiro Shinya, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki and Shingo Oda
This study investigated performance and wrist muscle activity during rapid-repetitive unimanual tapping with a drumstick in right-handed drummers and nondrummers. Analyses of performances revealed no difference in tapping frequency and peak tap force between drummers and nondrummers, although the drummers showed less variability in intertap interval than the nondrummers. Analyses of the electromyographic (EMG) data obtained by recording the activity of the flexor carpi ulnalis and the extensor carpi radialis muscles of the right wrist revealed several distinct differences between the two groups: the drummers showed a lower level of muscle cocontraction together with an earlier decline of wrist flexor muscle activity and a smaller variability of muscle activation time in the wrist flexors compared with the nondrummers. We suggest that these characteristics in wrist muscle activity in the drummers have been acquired following extensive practice for the efficient use of wrist muscles and stable drumming performance.
Nick Ball and Joanna Scurr
Electromyograms used to assess neuromuscular demand during high-velocity tasks require normalization to aid interpretation. This paper posits that, to date, methodological approaches to normalization have been ineffective and have limited the application of electromyography (EMG). There is minimal investigation seeking alternative normalization methods, which must be corrected to improve EMG application in sports. It is recognized that differing normalization methods will prevent cross-study comparisons. Users of EMG should aim to identify normalization methods that provide good reliability and a representative measure of muscle activation. The shortcomings of current normalization methods in high-velocity muscle actions assessment are evident. Advances in assessing alternate normalization methods have been done in cycling and sprinting. It is advised that when normalizing high-intensity muscle actions, isometric methods are used with caution and a dynamic alternative, where the muscle action is similar to that of the task is preferred. It is recognized that optimal normalization methods may be muscle and task dependent.
Hwang-Jae Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Sun Hee Hwang, Byung-Ok Choi, Gyu-Ha Ryu and Yun-Hee Kim
The purpose of this study was to examine age-related gait characteristics and their associations with balance function in older adults. A total of 51 adult volunteers participated. All subjects underwent locomotion analysis using a 3D motion analysis and 12-channel dynamic electromyography system. Dynamic balance function was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale. Older adults showed a higher level of muscle activation than young adults, and there were significant positive correlations between increased age and activation of the trunk and thigh muscles in the stance and swing phase of the gait cycle. In particular, back extensor muscle activity was mostly correlated with the dynamic balance in older adults. Thus, back extensor muscle activity in walking may provide a clue for higher falling risk in older adults. This study demonstrates that the back extensor muscles play very important roles with potential for rehabilitation training to improve balance and gait in older adults.
C. Buz Swanik, Scott M. Lephart, Frank P. Giannantonio and Freddie H. Fu
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury disrupts static and dynamic knee restraints, compromising functional stability. Deafferentation of ACL mechan-oreceptors alters the spinal reflex pathways to motor nerves and muscle spindles in addition to the cortical pathways for conscious and unconscious appreciation of proprioception and kinesthesia. These pathways are required by the feed-forward and feedback neuromuscular control systems to dynamically stabilize joints. Feed-forward motor control is responsible for preparatory muscle activity, while feedback motor control regulates reactive muscle activity. The level of muscle activation, preparatory or reactive, influences muscular stiffness, thereby providing dynamic restraint for the ACL-deficient athlete. Rehabilitation protocols should incorporate activities that enhance muscle stiffness while encouraging adaptations to peripheral afferents, spinal reflexes, and cortical motor patterns. Four elements crucial for reestablishing neuromuscular control and functional stability are proprioceptive and kinesthetic awareness, dynamic stability, preparatory and reactive muscle characteristics, and conscious and unconscious functional motor patterns.