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Martin E. Block

What is appropriate physical education for students with profound disabilities? Some suggest a developmental model in which students learn prerequisite skills before they are exposed to higher level skills. Others suggest the use of specially designed games that often bear little resemblance to traditional physical education activities. Still others call for a therapeutic model in which physical education focuses on physical and occupational therapy techniques. While these models provide viable programming options for students with profound disabilities, alone they do not constitute an appropriate physical education program as defined in PL 94-142 (reauthorized as PL 101-476). In addition, current philosophies in special education for students with severe and profound disabilities call for programs that are chronological age appropriate, functional, data based, and taught in natural, community based settings. This paper provides an alternative view of what is appropriate physical education for students with profound disabilities by integrating the best aspects of the models described above with the current life-skills curricula model employed in special education.

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Andrea J. Becker

The primary purpose of this study was to examine basketball players’ experiences of being coached during a turnaround season. Participants included eight collegiate men’s basketball players (ages 18–23) and one staff member representing an NCAA Division I program at a large university in the United States. All participants were involved with the basketball program during back-to-back seasons in which the team experienced a losing record (14–17) followed by a coaching change, and then a winning record (22–8) and conference championship. Semistructured interviews (lasting between 30–90 min) were conducted and transcribed verbatim. Analyses of the transcripts revealed 631 meaning units that were further grouped into lower and higher order themes. This led to the development of five major dimensions which encompassed these basketball players’ experiences of being coached during this extraordinary turnaround season including their (a) Experiences of Coach’s Personality Characteristics; (b) Experiences of Coach’s Philosophy, System, and Style of play; (c) Experiences of His Coaching Style; (d) Experiences of the Practice Environment; and (e) Experiences of How Coach Influenced Us.

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Martin E. Block

Inclusion, the philosophy of placing all children with disabilities in regular education settings, is easily the most discussed and controversial education reform issue since the 1975 passage of PL 94-142, Education of Handicapped Children Act (EHA). However, inclusion is never mentioned in the original EHA or the updated PL 101-476, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) (e.g., Sherrill, 1994; Stein, 1994). What is discussed in IDEA as well as Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 is the “continuum of least restrictive environments” (LRE). The purpose of this paper is to (a) review United States federal laws regarding inclusion and LRE, most notably IDEA and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; (b) review recent U.S. court cases regarding inclusion and LRE including three landmark cases: Roncker v. Walter (Ohio) (1983), Daniel R.R. v. State Board of Education (Texas) (1989), and Sacramento Unified School District, Board of Education v. Rachel H. (California) (1994); and (c) apply these federal laws and court decisions to physical education placement.

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Sergio Lara-Bercial and Clifford J. Mallett

In 2011, the Innovation Group of Leading Agencies of the International Council for Coaching Excellence initiated a project aimed at supporting the identification and development of the next generation of high performance coaches. The project, entitled Serial Winning Coaches, studied the personalities, practices and developmental pathways of professional and Olympic coaches who had repeatedly achieved success at the highest level of sport. This paper is the third publication originating from this unique project. In the first paper, Mallett and Coulter (2016) focused on the development and testing of a novel multilayered methodology in understanding a person through a single case study of a successful Olympic coach. In the second, Mallett and Lara-Bercial (2016) applied this methodology to a large sample of Serial Winning Coaches and offered a composite account of their personality. In this third instalment, we turn the focus onto the actual practices and developmental pathways of these coaches. The composite profile of their practice emerging from the analysis revolves around four major themes: Philosophy, Vision, People and Environment. In addition, a summary of the developmental activities accessed by these coaches and their journey to success is also offered. Finally, we consider the overall findings of the project and propose the concept of Driven Benevolence as the overarching operational principle guiding the actions and behaviours of this group of Serial Winning Coaches.

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Rainer Martens

Two sport psychologies have emerged—academic sport psychology and practicing sport psychology—which presently are on diverging courses because of an unjustified belief in orthodox science as the primary source of knowledge. To support this contention, the basic assumptions of orthodox science are examined, with the doctrine of objectivity singled out as fallacious and especially harmful in that it attempts to remove the person from the process of knowing. Polanyi’s (1958) heuristic philosophy of knowledge, which places humans in the center of the process of knowing, is recommended as an alternative approach for the study of human behavior. This alternative approach reveals the inadequacy of the laboratory experiment which has been invented primarily to pursue the doctrine of objectivity. Next, the Degrees of Knowledge theory is proposed as an alternative way to view the reliability of knowledge. This view, within the heuristic paradigm, places great significance on experiential knowledge. Recommendations for an improved science of human behavior emphasizes the idiographic approach, introspective methods, and field studies. Also, recommendations are made for a more progressive approach to applied research, and the significance of knowledge synthesis from applied research. The two sport psychologies will converge when orthodox science and the doctrine of objectivity are replaced with the heuristic paradigm and its emphasis on experiential knowledge.

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J. Montez de Oca

sports administrators and the field of coaching at both the collegiate and high school levels. It was also a time when the center of collegiate sport moved from the privileged colleges of the East to the large, land-grant universities in the Midwest. Moreover, his own market-centered philosophy of

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Marty K. Baker, Jeffrey A. Graham, Allison Smith and Zachary T. Smith

Soccer in the United States and the Football Association in England, create training programs for youth development that include training guidelines, benchmarks, and guiding philosophies. These recommendations and developmental programs in turn are used to guide youth football programs at many levels

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Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Margaret E. Whitehead

concept in use. Common themes or issues were identified across groups, including (a) the influence of physical literacy philosophy, (b) the core elements of physical literacy, (c) the lifelong nature of physical literacy, and (d) the need to scientifically pursue a robust operationalization of the concept

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Angela Robles

was filtered through these diverse lenses. This study has several practical implications for coaches, physical educators, and athletes who seek to capitalize on their natural talents and develop a strengths-based philosophy of sport. This study was significant for two main reasons. The first area of

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Cesar R. Torres

excellence in the kind of athletic pursuits known as sport. 2 There is a prevalent position in sport philosophy maintaining that sport is a game of physical skill. This means that sport consists of artificial obstacles created and regulated by rules intended to be met by physical skills (see, e.g., Meier