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Jennifer J. Heisz and Ana Kovacevic

Age-related changes in the brain can compromise cognitive function. However, in some cases, the brain is able to functionally reorganize to compensate for some of this loss. The present paper reviews the benefits of exercise on executive functions in older adults and discusses a potential mechanism through which exercise may change the way the brain processes information for better cognitive outcomes. Specifically, older adults who are more physically active demonstrate a shift toward local neural processing that is associated with better executive functions. We discuss the use of neural complexity as a sensitive measure of the neural network plasticity that is enhanced through exercise. We conclude by highlighting the future work needed to improve exercise prescriptions that help older adults maintain their cognitive and physical functions for longer into their lifespan.

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Guillaume Lamotte, Elizabeth Skender, Miriam R. Rafferty, Fabian J. David, Steve Sadowsky and Daniel M. Corcos

Objective:

This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of progressive resistance exercise training (PRET) on motor and nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD).

Methods:

First, we perform a systematic review of the literature on the effects of PRET on motor signs of PD, functional outcomes, quality of life, and patient perceived improvement, strength, and cognition in PD. Second, we perform a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Finally, we discuss the results of our review and we identify current knowledge gaps regarding PRET in PD.

Conclusion:

This systematic review synthesizes evidence that PRET can improve strength and motor signs of Parkinsonism in PD and may also be beneficial for physical function in individuals with PD. Further research is needed to explore the effects of PRET on nonmotor symptoms such as depression, cognitive impairment, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and quality of life in individuals with PD.

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Carrie S. Baker, Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Ellen L. Usher

Self-efficacy of balance, a psychological characteristic, may provide information regarding psychological risk factors for lower-extremity injury. Validated instruments to assess self-efficacy of balance do not currently exist. The objective of this study was to determine the face and content validity of the Self-Efficacy of Balance Scale (SEBS) for an adolescent population, as well as content validity, construct and convergent validity of the overall instrument. A series of panelists (n = 11) assessed proposed items for face and content validity for self-efficacy of balance. Construct and convergent validity were assessed with active college individuals (n = 74) and female high school basketball athletes (n = 57). Original items were revised to 21 items. Panelists validated both face and content validity of the SEBS. All items were assessed to have the construct of self-efficacy. Evidence of convergent validity supported the proposed construct of self-efficacy, and was found to be relevant to the physical functioning of a young, active population.

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Jitka Jancova-Vseteckova, Martin Bobak, Ruzena Kubinova, Nada Capkova, Anne Peasey, Michael G. Marmot and Hynek Pikhart

Background:

The aim was to examine the association of objective measures of physical functioning (PF) with education and material circumstances and the decline in PF with age by socioeconomic position (SEP).

Methods:

In 3,205 subjects (60–75 years) from the Czech Republic, we assessed relationship between PF, SEP, and age. Linear regression was used to assess PF measures and SEP measures.

Results:

Cross-sectional decline in PF by age was similar in all individuals. Differences between SEP groups were similar across age groups, except for the difference in walk speed by material circumstances in men—bigger at older ages (p = .004). Men and women with the highest education were about 2 s faster at the chair rise test than those with the lowest education.

Discussion:

Findings suggest strong educational gradient in PF, an inconsistent role of self-assessed material circumstances, and virtually no interaction of SEP with the cross-sectional decline in PF by age.

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Katariina Kämppi, Annaleena Aira, Nina Halme, Pauliina Husu, Virpi Inkinen, Laura Joensuu, Sami Kokko, Kaarlo Laine, Kaisu Mononen, Sanna Palomäki, Timo Ståhl, Arja Sääkslahti and Tuija Tammelin

). The data sources were most recent national monitoring and surveys related to PA including the LIITU study (2016), the School Health Promotion (SHP) Study (2017), National Move! monitoring system for physical functioning capacity 2017 and Promotion of PA in municipalities – TEAviisari 2016. Finland

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Itoh * 10 1996 4 4 338 348 10.1123/japa.4.4.338 Self-Rated Health and the Spectrum of Physical Activity and Physical Function in Older Women Edward W. Gregg * Andrea M. Kriska * Kathleen M. Fox * Jane A. Cauley * 10 1996 4 4 349 361 10.1123/japa.4.4.349 Physical Activity and Measures of

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* Robert M. Brouillette * Heather C. Foil * Jeffrey N. Keller * Catrine Tudor-Locke * 10 2013 21 4 402 416 10.1123/japa.21.4.402 Left Atrial Enlargement and Reduced Physical Function During Aging Andrew A. Pellett * Leann Myers * Michael Welsch * S. Michal Jazwinski * David A. Welsh * 10

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Training Effects on Subjective Well-Being and Physical Function in the Elderly Shannon L. Mihalko * Edward McAuley * 1 1996 4 1 56 68 10.1123/japa.4.1.56 The Effects of Hypertension and Aging on Left Ventricular Function during Isometric Exercise Michael Sagiv * Amira Sagiv * David Ben

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Ereline * Helena Gapeyeva * Heigo Maamägi * 4 2002 10 2 160 168 10.1123/japa.10.2.160 Scholarly Reviews Flexibility and Physical Functions of Older Adults: A Review George J. Holland * Kiyoji Tanaka * Ryosuke Shigematsu * Masaki Nakagaichi * 4 2002 10 2 169 206 10.1123/japa.10.2.169 Research

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* Melissa A. Napolitano * Parinda Khatri * W. Edward Craighead * Steve Herman * Ranga Krishnan * James A. Blumenthal * 1 1999 7 1 55 61 10.1123/japa.7.1.55 Exercise Training for Older Adults with Limitations in Physical Function Claire Peel * Carolyn Utsey * Jan MacGregor * 1 1999 7 1 62