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Jitka Jancova-Vseteckova, Martin Bobak, Ruzena Kubinova, Nada Capkova, Anne Peasey, Michael G. Marmot and Hynek Pikhart

Background:

The aim was to examine the association of objective measures of physical functioning (PF) with education and material circumstances and the decline in PF with age by socioeconomic position (SEP).

Methods:

In 3,205 subjects (60–75 years) from the Czech Republic, we assessed relationship between PF, SEP, and age. Linear regression was used to assess PF measures and SEP measures.

Results:

Cross-sectional decline in PF by age was similar in all individuals. Differences between SEP groups were similar across age groups, except for the difference in walk speed by material circumstances in men—bigger at older ages (p = .004). Men and women with the highest education were about 2 s faster at the chair rise test than those with the lowest education.

Discussion:

Findings suggest strong educational gradient in PF, an inconsistent role of self-assessed material circumstances, and virtually no interaction of SEP with the cross-sectional decline in PF by age.

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Katariina Kämppi, Annaleena Aira, Nina Halme, Pauliina Husu, Virpi Inkinen, Laura Joensuu, Sami Kokko, Kaarlo Laine, Kaisu Mononen, Sanna Palomäki, Timo Ståhl, Arja Sääkslahti and Tuija Tammelin

). The data sources were most recent national monitoring and surveys related to PA including the LIITU study (2016), the School Health Promotion (SHP) Study (2017), National Move! monitoring system for physical functioning capacity 2017 and Promotion of PA in municipalities – TEAviisari 2016. Finland

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Itoh * 10 1996 4 4 338 348 10.1123/japa.4.4.338 Self-Rated Health and the Spectrum of Physical Activity and Physical Function in Older Women Edward W. Gregg * Andrea M. Kriska * Kathleen M. Fox * Jane A. Cauley * 10 1996 4 4 349 361 10.1123/japa.4.4.349 Physical Activity and Measures of

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Training Effects on Subjective Well-Being and Physical Function in the Elderly Shannon L. Mihalko * Edward McAuley * 1 1996 4 1 56 68 10.1123/japa.4.1.56 The Effects of Hypertension and Aging on Left Ventricular Function during Isometric Exercise Michael Sagiv * Amira Sagiv * David Ben

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* Robert M. Brouillette * Heather C. Foil * Jeffrey N. Keller * Catrine Tudor-Locke * 10 2013 21 4 402 416 10.1123/japa.21.4.402 Left Atrial Enlargement and Reduced Physical Function During Aging Andrew A. Pellett * Leann Myers * Michael Welsch * S. Michal Jazwinski * David A. Welsh * 10

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Ereline * Helena Gapeyeva * Heigo Maamägi * 4 2002 10 2 160 168 10.1123/japa.10.2.160 Scholarly Reviews Flexibility and Physical Functions of Older Adults: A Review George J. Holland * Kiyoji Tanaka * Ryosuke Shigematsu * Masaki Nakagaichi * 4 2002 10 2 169 206 10.1123/japa.10.2.169 Research

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* Melissa A. Napolitano * Parinda Khatri * W. Edward Craighead * Steve Herman * Ranga Krishnan * James A. Blumenthal * 1 1999 7 1 55 61 10.1123/japa.7.1.55 Exercise Training for Older Adults with Limitations in Physical Function Claire Peel * Carolyn Utsey * Jan MacGregor * 1 1999 7 1 62

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* Jon Pynoos * Laurence Z. Rubenstein * 7 2014 22 3 372 379 10.1123/JAPA.2012-0344 Effects of Dance on Depression, Physical Function, and Disability in Underserved Adults Carolyn J. Murrock * Christine Heifner Graor * 7 2014 22 3 380 385 10.1123/JAPA.2013-0003 Older Women’s Personal Goals and

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Association With Physical Function in Older Adults Mark G. Davis * Kenneth R. Fox * Afroditi Stathi * Tanya Trayers * Janice L. Thompson * Ashley R. Cooper * 10 2014 22 4 474 481 10.1123/JAPA.2013-0042 Effects of Patterns of Walking Training on Metabolic Health of Untrained Postmenopausal Women

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Kym Joanne Price, Brett Ashley Gordon, Kim Gray, Kerri Gergely, Stephen Richard Bird and Amanda Clare Benson

-reported data on physical function from individuals recovering from an acute cardiac event ( Jette & Downing, 1994 ; Pepin, Alexander, & Phillips, 2004 ). In addition, physical capacity appears to be associated with the type of treatment, as patients receiving cardiac surgery typically have lower exercise