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Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Argyris Toubekis, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, João Paulo Loures, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos and Marcelo Papoti

the duration of the incomplete effort, and IN is the increment between efforts. Blood was collected after the 3-minute all-out effort (3, 5, and 7 min of recovery) to assess its peak value and during the 1-minute interval between the efforts of the second phase. The relationship between [La − ] and

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Muammer Altun

gender and to investigate the relationship between maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and FS. Three active JPS tests performed with no load (NL JPS), low load (LL JPS) and high load (HL JPS) were compared at the 45° target angle. It was hypothesized that the external load improves active

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Sarah J. Parker, Scott J. Strath and Ann M. Swartz

This study examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and mental health among older adults as measured by objective and subjective PA-assessment instruments. Pedometers (PED), accelerometers (ACC), and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) were administered to measure 1 week of PA among 84 adults age 55–87 (mean = 71) years. General mental health was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWL). Linear regressions revealed that PA estimated by PED significantly predicted 18.1%, 8.3%, and 12.3% of variance in SWL and positive and negative affect, respectively, whereas PA estimated by the PASE did not predict any mental health variables. Results from ACC data were mixed. Hotelling–William tests between correlation coefficients revealed that the relationship between PED and SWL was significantly stronger than the relationship between PASE and SWL. Relationships between PA and mental health might depend on the PA measure used.

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Ashley Walker, Jody Langdon and Krystina Johnson

Background:

Young adults have the highest participation in physical activity but also have the highest incidence rates of binge drinking, cigarette smoking, and smokeless tobacco use. We examined these factors to determine whether there are relationships among physical activity and health risk behaviors.

Methods:

We conducted correlation and χ2 analyses using the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment fall 2009 data set (N = 34,208) to examine the relationship among meeting physical-activity guidelines, binge drinking, and tobacco use among survey participants.

Results:

The data suggest a positive relationship between meeting physical-activity guidelines and binge drinking, with the strongest relationship between those reporting binge drinking 4 times in a 2-week period. Meeting physical-activity guidelines was negatively associated with cigarette use but positively associated with all other types of tobacco use.

Conclusion:

Associations between physical activity and binge-drinking episodes indicate a need to address the relationship between heavy drinking and alcohol dependence and physical-activity behavior patterns. Further studies should examine relationships between physical activity and binge drinking in other age groups. Results also suggest the need to examine differing associations between physical activity and types of tobacco use.

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Jonathon Edwards, Diane Culver, Ross Leadbetter, Kate Kloos and Luke Potwarka

An understanding of the relationship between the key stakeholders such as sport organizations, coach developers (CDs), and coaches and their roles within a system is imperative for ensuring the effective delivery of key programs and activities. This is particularly the case in the delivery of a

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Alan L. Smith, Sarah Ullrich-French, Eddie Walker II and Kimberly S. Hurley

The purpose of this study was to (a) describe peer relationship profiles of youth sport participants and (b) assess the motivational salience of these profiles by examining profile group differences on sport motivation-related variables. Youth sport camp participants (N = 243) ages 10 to 14 years (M = 11.8, SD = 1.2) completed a multisection questionnaire that contained sport-contextualized measures of perceived friendship quality (positive, conflict), perceived peer acceptance, perceived competence, enjoyment, anxiety, self-presentational concerns, and self-determined motivation. The positive friendship quality, friendship conflict, and peer acceptance responses were cluster-analyzed, yielding five peer relationship profiles that were consistent with expectations based on previous research (i.e., Seidman et al., 1999). Profile differences were obtained for all motivation-related variables and were in theoretically consistent directions. Those young athletes categorized in more adaptive peer relationship profiles had more adaptive motivation-related responses. The findings support theoretical perspectives on social relationships and motivation as well as the efficacy of a person-centered approach to the examination of peer relationships in sport.

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John McDaniel, N. Scott Behjani, Steven J. Elmer, Nicholas A.T. Brown and James C. Martin

Previous authors have reported power-pedaling rate relationships for maximal cycling. However, the joint-specific power-pedaling rate relationships that contribute to pedal power have not been reported. We determined absolute and relative contributions of joint-specific powers to pedal power across a range of pedaling rates during maximal cycling. Ten cyclists performed maximal 3 s cycling trials at 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 rpm. Joint-specific powers were averaged over complete pedal cycles, and extension and flexion actions. Effects of pedaling rate on relative joint-specific power, velocity, and excursion were assessed with regression analyses and repeated-measures ANOVA. Relative ankle plantar flexion power (25 to 8%; P = .01; R 2 = .90) decreased with increasing pedaling rate, whereas relative hip extension power (41 to 59%; P < .01; R 2 = .92) and knee flexion power (34 to 49%; P < .01; R 2 = .94) increased with increasing pedaling rate. Knee extension powers did not differ across pedaling rates. Ankle joint angular excursion decreased with increasing pedaling rate (48 to 20 deg) whereas hip joint excursion increased (42 to 48 deg). These results demonstrate that the often-reported quadratic power-pedaling rate relationship arises from combined effects of dissimilar joint-specific power-pedaling rate relationships. These dissimilar relationships are likely influenced by musculoskeletal constraints (ie, muscle architecture, morphology) and/or motor control strategies.

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Shaun M. Anderson and Matthew M. Martin

MLB’s struggle to establish relationships with African American communities was due to the organization’s inability to stay relevant. While meant to be a satirical dramatization of MLB’s African American plight, his sentiments reveal a harsh truth. MLB has seen a drastic decline in African American

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Janet B. Parks, Ronald L. Russell and Peter H. Wood

The purpose of this study was to investigate marital and other primary dyadic relationships of intercollegiate athletics administrators at the 106 NCAA Division IA institutions (N = 1072). The Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (Spanier, 1976, 1989) was used to assess perceptions of the quality of dyadic relationships among administrators who were either married or in unmarried, cohabiting partnerships (n = 402). Application of independent samples t tests, with alpha adjusted from .05 to .003 by Bonferroni's contrasting procedure, revealed that (a) there was a significant difference between Dyadic Cohesion scores of athletics administrators and the married norm group (p < .001), and (b) female athletics administrators produced significantly higher scores in Dyadic Cohesion than did male athletics administrators (p < .003). Future research should include an investigation of dyadic adjustment of the mates/partners of intercollegiate athletics administrators to facilitate comparisons of the two perceptions of the relationship.

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Stephen Silverman

This study investigated relationships between two groups of process variables, student engagement and practice trials, and achievement. The effect of initial skill level and class membership in these relationships was also examined. Students (N = 57 after attrition) were pretested, instructed, and posttested on a swimming skill. The two instructional periods were videotaped and coded for motor engagement, cognitive engagement, and the quantity, type, and difficulty level of practice trials. Motor and cognitive engagement were not significant predictors of achievement for the entire sample. Whole-appropriate practice trials were positive predictors of achievement and whole-inappropriate practice trials were negative predictors of achievement. A variety of significant relationships were found when data were analyzed by skill level and class. The data indicate that engagement paradigms may extend to psychomotor skill learning and that the type of practice trials are more important than simple engaged time.