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Joel D. Barnes, Christine Cameron, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Guy E.J. Faulkner, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Roger Kramers, Allana G. LeBlanc, John C. Spence and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the most comprehensive assessment of child and youth physical activity in Canada and provides an update or “state of the nation” that assesses how Canada is doing at promoting and facilitating physical activity opportunities for children and youth. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the 2016 ParticipACTION Report Card.

Methods:

Twelve physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using a process that was informed by the best available evidence. Sources included national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, and gray literature such as government and nongovernment reports and online content.

Results:

Grades were assigned to Daily Behaviors (Overall Physical Activity: D-; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation: B; Active Play: D+; Active Transportation: D; Physical Literacy: D+; Sleep: B; Sedentary Behaviors: F), Settings and Sources of Influence (Family and Peers: C+; School: B; Community and Environment: A-), and Strategies and Investments (Government: B-; Nongovernment: A-).

Conclusions:

Similar to previous years of the Report Card, Canada generally received good grades for indicators relating to investment, infrastructure, strategies, policies, and programming, and poor grades for behavioral indicators (eg, Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors).

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Marjolein Visser, Robert J. Brychta, Kong Y. Chen and Annemarie Koster

We aimed to compare self-reported adherence to the physical activity recommendation with accelerometry in older adults and to identify determinants of misperception. The sample included 138 adults age 65–75 yr old participating in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Participants completed a lifestyle questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for one week. More than half (56.8%) of the participants reported to adhere to the physical activity recommendation (in 5-min bouts), however, based on accelerometry, this percentage was only 24.6%. Of those who reported to adhere, 65.3% did not do so based on accelerometry. The misperceivers were older (p < .009), more often female (p = .007), had a poorer walking performance (p = .02), reported a lower social support (p = .04), and tended to have a lower self-efficacy (p = .09) compared with those who correctly perceived their adherence to the recommendation. These results suggest that misperception of adherence to the physical activity recommendation is highly prevalent among specific subgroups of older adults.

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John J. Reilly, Smita Dick, Geraldine McNeill and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The Active Healthy Kids Scotland Report Card aims to consolidate existing evidence, facilitate international comparisons, encourage more evidence-informed physical activity and health policy, and improve surveillance of physical activity.

Methods:

Application of the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card process and methodology to Scotland, adapted to Scottish circumstances and availability of data.

Results:

The Active Healthy Kids Scotland Report Card 2013 consists of indicators of 7 Health Behaviors and Outcomes and 3 Influences on Health Behaviors and Outcomes. Grades of F were assigned to Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior (recreational screen time), and Obesity Prevalence. A C was assigned to Active Transportation and a D- was assigned to Diet. Two indicators, Active and Outdoor Play and Organized Sport Participation, could not be graded. Among the Influences, Family Influence received a D, while Perceived Safety, Access, and Availability of Spaces for Physical Activity and the National Policy Environment graded more favorably with a B.

Conclusions:

The Active Healthy Kids Canada process and methodology was readily generalizable to Scotland. The report card illustrated low habitual physical activity and extremely high levels of screen-based sedentary behavior, and highlighted several opportunities for improved physical activity surveillance and promotion strategies.

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Helene Buch Pedersen, Morten Helmer-Nielsen, Karin Brochstedt Dieperink and Birte Østergaard

Background:

Exercise on prescription (EOP) is an attempt to increase physical activity among sedentary adults with signs of lifestyle diseases. Until now, no studies have focused on patients with chronic diseases and how they assess the long-term effect of participating in EOP consisting of supervised interventions of different intensities. This study aimed to describe and compare self-reported physical activity in the long term among participants in 3 EOP modules of different intensities.

Methods:

A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1152 former participants in EOP between July 2005 and May 2007 in 2 Danish counties. Physical activity was measured as number of days with a minimum 30 minutes of moderate/vigorous activity.

Results:

Seventy-five percent (n = 854) returned the questionnaire. Of these, 36% reported being physically active ≥ 5 days/week. Comparing leisure-time activities before EOP 29% was sedentary vs. 15% (P < 0 .01) after, moderate + hard leisure-time activities was 7% before vs. 19% after EOP (P < 0 .01). Time postintervention did not influence the numbers reporting to be physical active negatively.

Conclusions:

This study in community-dwelling adults with chronic diseases participating in EOP finds that approximately one-third reported being physically active in the long term postintervention, but no differences between the modalities were found.

Open access

Ade F. Adeniyi, Olukemi O. Odukoya, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Olatunde S. Ojo, Edirin Metseagharun and Kingsley K. Akinroye

Background:

The Nigerian Report card on Physical Activity (PA) in Children and Youth was first developed in 2013 to inform practice and policy on healthy living and prevention of noncommunicable diseases among Nigerian children and youth. This article summarizes the results of the 2016 report card and provides updated evidence on the current situation in Nigeria.

Methods:

A comprehensive review of literature was undertaken by the Report Card Working Group. Grades were assigned to 10 PA indicators based on the criteria used for the 2013 edition.

Results:

Grades assigned to the indicators were Overall PA, D; Active Play and Leisure, C; Active Transportation, B; Sedentary Behaviors (screen-based, F and nonscreen-based, D); Overweight and Obesity, A; PA in Schools, C-; Government/Nongovernment Organizations/Private Sector/Policy, B. The following indicators were graded as Incomplete: Organized Sport and PA, Community and Built Environment, and Family and Peers.

Conclusions:

The overall PA levels of Nigerian children and youth seemed to be declining compared with the 2013 Report card but with slight improvement in active play and leisure, and PA in school settings. A substantial number of Nigerian children and youth still have high sedentary behaviors, overweight and obesity. Efforts are needed to promote PA among them.

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Steven P. Singleton, James T. Fitzgerald and Anne Victoria Neale

This study was conducted to determine the exercise habits and fitness status of healthy older black and white adults, ages 50 to 80 years. The 384 subjects were enrolled in a health promotion project conducted by a midwestern medical school. Self-reported exercise levels were higher for men than for women and were higher for whites compared with blacks. Age had the greatest impact on treadmill performance for both sexes. Activity levels declined with age for men but not for women. Self-reported exercise levels were highly predictive of fitness status for men but not for women. The relationship in older adults between activity levels and both measured fitness and health status needs further investigation.

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Jorge Mota, Manuel João Coelho-e-Silva, Armando M. Raimundo and Luís B. Sardinha

Background:

This article describes the procedures and development of the first Portuguese Report Card on Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents.

Methods:

Comprehensive searches for data related to indicators of physical activity (PA) were completed by a committee of physical activity and sports specialists. Grades were assigned to each indicator consistent with the process and methodology outlined by the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card model.

Results:

Nine indicators of PA were graded. The following grades were assigned: Overall Physical Activity Levels, D; Organized Sport Participation, B; Active Play, D; Active Transportation, C; Sedentary Behaviors, D; Family and Peers, C; Schools, B; Community and the Built Environment, D; and Government, C.

Conclusions:

Portuguese children and adolescents do not reach sufficient physical activity levels and spend larger amounts of time spent in sedentary behaviors compared with recommendations. Effective policies of PA promotion and implementation are needed in different domains of young people’s daily lives.

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Samuel R. Hodge, Francis M. Kozub, Leah E. Robinson and Bethany L. Hersman

The purpose of this study was to determine what trends exist in the identification and description of participants used in data-based studies published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly and the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. Data were analyzed using frequency counts for journals and time periods from the 1980s to 2005 with chi-square tests on gender, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate, for example, that across the time span both journals published articles reporting males first over females, X 2 (3) = 22.16, p < .001. Trend data also reveal that even today most data-based studies in these journals fail to report race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Findings are discussed with guiding principles for future research.

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Athanasios Papaioannou

This study examined the relationship among goal orientations, perceived motivation climate, self-reported discipline, reasons for discipline, and perceived teacher’s strategies to sustain discipline in physical education lessons. Six hundred and seventy-four students responded on questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Task orientation was positively associated with self-determined reasons for discipline. The perception of a task-involving climate was positively related to perceptions of teaching strategies promoting reasons for discipline determined by the students. Task-involvement and self-determined reasons for being disciplined corresponded to students’ reported discipline in the lesson. On the contrary, the perception of an ego-involving climate was linked with perceived teaching strategies promoting an external locus of causality in the lesson. The results imply that teachers who try to strengthen the task orientation of students and help them adopt more self-determined reasons for being disciplined will have more orderly classes.

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Jennifer Cumming, Tom Olphin and Michelle Law

The aim of the present study was to examine self-reported psychological states and physiological responses (heart rate) experienced during different motivational general imagery scenarios. Forty competitive athletes wore a standard heart rate monitor and imaged five scripts (mastery, coping, anxiety, psyching up, and relaxation). Following each script, they reported their state anxiety and self-confidence. A significant increase in heart rate from baseline to imagery was found for the anxiety, psyching-up, and coping imagery scripts. Furthermore, the intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety was greater and perceived as being more debilitative following the anxiety imagery script. The findings support Lang’s (1977, 1979) proposal that images containing response propositions will produce a physiological response (i.e., increase heart rate). Moreover, coping imagery enabled the athletes to simultaneously experience elevated levels of anxiety intensity and thoughts and feelings they perceived as helpful.