The social theory of sport literature has taken a new and welcome critical turn in the last few years. That turn is revealed in the emergence of a Marxist-based corpus of literature which challenges headlong the fundamental tenets of mainstream (functionalist) sport sociology. The purpose of the present paper is to critically respond to this new critical theory of sport; in particular to its two major versions—what I call, respectively, vulgar Marxist, and hegemonic sport theory. I argue that both versions of this theory are conceptually flawed, and that these conceptual flaws are themselves ideologically grounded. The point of my criticisms, however, is not to undermine or otherwise deflect the critical thrust of this theory, but to suggest that that thrust requires a new conceptual scaffolding which is more sensitive to the ideological temperament of advanced capitalist society.
William J. Morgan
Philip E. Varca, Garnett Stokes Shaffer and Vickie Saunders
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sport participation and life satisfaction. It involved 286 females and 262 males, categorized into three levels of sport participation (high, medium, low), who responded to two measures of life satisfaction over a 9-year period. There was no significant relationship between sport participation and life satisfaction for women. Among men, however, the high sport participation group reported the highest level of life satisfaction as freshmen in college and again 5 years after graduation. A farther path analysis, focusing on the causal nature of the sport experience/life satisfaction relationship, revealed that sport participation during adolescence significantly affected adult life satisfaction for men. These findings are discussed in terms of the psychological effects of sport.
Britton W. Brewer, Christine L. Buntrock, Nancy S. Diehl and Judy L. Van Raalte
Poster sessions have become a standard feature at sport psychology conferences. Although these sessions are intended to facilitate interaction between presenters and audience members, recent research suggests that the exchange of information in poster sessions is less than optimal (Rienzi & Allen, 1994). This study examined the extent to which authors of poster presentations at a sport psychology conference mailed handouts or manuscripts containing details of their presentations to interested colleagues. Results indicated that authors of only 39% of the posters responded to the requests for written information, and some of those responses were not timely. By failing to provide handouts or manuscripts to interested individuals, poster presenters may impede scientific and applied progress. Presenters are encouraged to honor their ethical and professional obligations to disseminate information on their work to the sport psychology community.
John S.W. Spinda, Daniel L. Wann and Michael Sollitto
In this case study analysis, we explored the motives for playing Strat-O-Matic Baseball (SOMB), a baseball simulation played as a board game or online, from the perspective of the uses-and-gratifications theory. In phase I of the study, SOMB manager narratives (N = 50) were analyzed for motive statements. In phase II, an online survey asked SOMB managers (N = 222) to respond to motive items as well as four measures of Major League Baseball (MLB) and SOMB identification. Overall, eight motives for playing SOMB emerged from the 64-item pool of motive items. These eight motives were nostalgia, knowledge acquisition, social bonding, enjoyment, vicarious achievement, game aesthetics, convenience, and escape. Our findings suggest these motives predicted measures of MLB and SOMB identification in significantly different ways. Theoretical implications, future research, limitations, and discussion questions are presented in this analysis.
Dorothy B. Zakrajsek
This commentary responds to an invitation to discuss sport management from the viewpoint of an administrator. My thoughts are segmented into two streams: (a) the interface of a sports-minded public and sport management and (b) the listing of a few issues and concerns confronting sport management today. The first recognizes the high profile of sport in American society and the rising gross national sport product (GNSP), which have placed sport management programs in the enviable position of visibility and attention. The second plays on several themes: continuing to improve the knowledge and research base, establishing an independent identity while sharing technology within HPER programs, and being sensitive to a growing trend toward more graduate students entering from fields outside sport, leisure, and Wellness.
Michael G. Lacy and Donald L. Greer
The purpose of this investigation was to advance recent discussion about the relative merits of two alternative instruments involved in the assessment of game orientation. Fourth- and fifth-grade students (N=471) responded to a questionnaire containing both the Game Orientation Scale (GOS) and an adapted version of the original Webb Scale referred to as the “Context Modified Webb Scale” (CMW). CMW and GOS scores were then compared with scores reported in previous studies using each instrument, and the relationship between GOS and CMW scores was investigated using a series of Kendall correlation coefficients. CMW scores behaved consistently with previous results, but a significant gender difference emerged, which had not been seen previously in the GOS. Despite the differences in the way the two instruments approach the specification of play context, and despite the fact that one measures relative values while the other measures absolute values, small but conceptually sensible correlations between the two instruments were found consistently.
Matthew P. Callahan, Craig R. Denegar and Craig A. Segree
Orthotics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of lower extremity injuries secondary to hyperpronation. However, the efficacy of vacuum-molded orthotics has not been established. We assessed the effects of vacuum-molded orthotics on pain and level of function in athletes suffering from plantar fasciitis, medial tibial stress syndrome, or knee pain secondary to hyperpronation. Fourteen athletes assessed their pain and level of function during athletic activity before being fitted for orthotics (Professional Rx, SuperFeet In-Shoe Systems Inc.) and weekly for 7 weeks following break-in. Five athletes (36%) reported complete pain resolution and eight (57%) reported substantial improvement. Eight athletes (57%) reported full return to athletic participation and five (36%) reported substantial improvement in athletic function. One athlete failed to respond to treatment. Results indicate that vacuum-molded orthotics are an effective treatment for lower extremity overuse injuries secondary to hyperpronation.
Martina Navarro, Nelson Miyamoto, John van der Kamp, Edgard Morya, Ronald Ranvaud and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh
We investigated the effects of high pressure on the point of no return or the minimum time required for a kicker to respond to the goalkeeper’s dive in a simulated penalty kick task. The goalkeeper moved to one side with different times available for the participants to direct the ball to the opposite side in low-pressure (acoustically isolated laboratory) and high-pressure situations (with a participative audience). One group of participants showed a significant lengthening of the point of no return under high pressure. With less time available, performance was at chance level. Unexpectedly, in a second group of participants, high pressure caused a qualitative change in which for short times available participants were inclined to aim in the direction of the goalkeeper’s move. The distinct effects of high pressure are discussed within attentional control theory to reflect a decreasing efficiency of the goal-driven attentional system, slowing down performance, and a decreasing effectiveness in inhibiting stimulus-driven behavior.
Yasuhiro Seya and Shuji Mori
We examined simple and choice reaction times (RTs) to a visual target that appears during smooth pursuit. Participants pursued a moving fixation stimulus accurately before a target stimulus was presented either above or below the fixation stimulus. In the simple RT task, the participants responded to the onset of the target as soon as possible. In the choice RT task, they indicated the target position, i.e., above or below the fixation stimulus, as soon and as accurately as possible. The results showed that, in both tasks, the RTs during smooth pursuit at 10°/s were longer than those during stationary fixation, and the RTs decreased as the fixation stimulus velocity further increased to 40°/s. Since pursuit gains (the ratio of eye velocity to fixation stimulus velocity) decreased as the fixation stimulus velocity increased, these results suggest that there is a tradeoff between pursuit accuracy and RT.
Phillip Ward and Mary O’Sullivan
The present investigation reports on changes in the pedagogy and content of one teacher as a function of experience. The teacher was observed in Year 2 and in Year 6 teaching basketball and gymnastics in the same school. Data were collected using direct observations from videotapes of the lessons and semistructured interviews. Direct observation categories included lesson time, content type and sequence, instructional methods, teacher interactions, and student opportunities to respond. Three interviews were conducted with questions derived from videotape observation. A comparison of instructional units conducted in Year 2 and Year 6 reveals similarities in the pedagogical organization of the lessons, but differences in the content; less skill development occurred in Year 6 than in Year 2. Interviews revealed that skill expectations were less in Year 6 than they were in Year 2. These findings are interpreted in terms of three recurring themes: pedagogical reductionism, typicality, and isolation.