The failure to adequately address nonresponse issues in survey research may lead to nonresponse bias in overall survey estimates, which can severely restrict researchers’ ability to make inferences to a target population. This study was designed to assess the frequency of nonresponse analyses in articles published in the Journal of Sport Management (JSM). All articles from the years 1987 through 2008 published in JSM (N = 371) were content analyzed based on a previously established coding scheme as well as additional indicators. The results revealed that only a small number of articles reported the use of nonresponse analyses as a means to control for nonresponse error.
Jeremy S. Jordan, Matthew Walker, Aubrey Kent and Yuhei Inoue
The Playoff Safety Bias occurs when playoff appearances matter more than championships in terms of an individual’s decision-making process when choosing to consume major professional sport from a set of options, referred to as the Sequential Goal Heuristic. This paper (i) demonstrates the potential value of experimental design research in sport management and (ii) provides a consumer-based perspective of playoff structure. Adopting a consumer psychology approach, a 2 (Team performance: good team/bad team) × 3 (Goal: make playoffs every year/ win at least one championship/ maximize number of championships) design was administered via a scenario presented to 152 undergraduate students. The scenario controlled and manipulated the good team/bad team construct by varying the team’s past six season standings. Results revealed that the subjects instructed to maximize the number of playoff appearances had similar estimations of the ideal number of playoff teams, whether fans of a good or bad team. Conversely, of the subjects instructed to either (i) maximize the number of championships won or (ii) maximize the probability of winning at least one championship, fans of good teams over-estimated the optimal number of playoff teams significantly more than fans of bad teams. Implications for future research, practitioner application, and support of similar methods in sport management research are provided.
Jo Williams and Colleen Colles
Increased accountability has led institutions of higher education to search for assessment tools that provide documentation on the achievement of specific learning outcomes. Portfolio assessment has become commonplace among many disciplines but limited work has been presented within sport management. The purpose of this research is to present an adaptable portfolio assessment framework that will allow faculty to assess student learning outcomes using the internship portfolio. Student achievement is assessed in relation to the development of broad-based skills and the application of curriculum content standards. Over 500 entries from 35 portfolios were analyzed via scoring rubrics. Data collected indicated that with appropriate support, the portfolio framework could be used to assess individual student achievement within the desired areas. A positive relationship between portfolio scores and major GPA was found; however, no significant differences in portfolio scores were identified based on job descriptions.
Gregg Bennett, Khalid Ballouli and Jason Sosa
The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of a sport management student exchange program. During a summer semester, Wilson University1 faculty hosted a 39-day exchange and study tour made possible due to funding from the U.S. Department of State’s Fusion Arts Exchange program. The theme of the program, the American Sports Brand, was based on an original model focused on creating a deeper understanding of U.S. society, culture, and values among a multinational group of students through an intensive study of the formation, development, and business practices of the American Sports Brand. Participants included 15 international students and five American undergraduate students. A mixed methodological framework was used to examine student learning, perceptions, and experiences. Findings indicate that the exchange was perceived as “sometimes good, sometimes not so good” by the participants. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Earle F. Zeigler
Today sport and all other social institutions (e.g., religion, politics, finance) are confronted with the need to demonstrate that they are worthwhile and responsible. Sport managers should understand what sport’s status is and how and why such standing occurred. Difficult decisions, often ethical in nature, will have to be made as members of the sport management societies worldwide strive to continue developing this profession and discipline. These professionals need to decide to what extent they wish to live up to the broad ideals of the programs being promoted by public, semipublic, and private agencies for people of all types and ages. Those involved with professional preparation and scholarly endeavor urgently need a theory and a disciplinary model for administrative or managerial leadership of sport on a gradually improving, sound academic basis. Practitioners need an online service that provides them with scholarly applied findings as they seek to serve in the behaviorally oriented environment of today’s world.
Jacquelyn Cuneen and M. Joy Sidwell
This study assessed gender effect in rating/selection of undergraduate sport management interns. Abridged resumés of six fictitious interns were mailed to persons who interview/select students for internships within major league baseball, professional basketball, and football (TV = 52; 64%). A 1 = weak to 7 = strong continuum was used to collect ratings to determine if gender biases disfavoring females existed in rating/selection. Respondents also selected one potential intern from the pool. Chi-square indicated no significant gender differences in selection. Repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant gender/status effect related to lower qualified intern candidates. Conclusions were that candidates' qualifications and experiences may overshadow discriminatory tendencies, but when females and males are equally qualified, gender biases may favor males' credentials.
Janet B. Parks and Mary Ann Roberton
This paper discusses three studies on changing people's attitudes toward sexist/nonsexist language. In Study 1, sport management students (N= 164) were asked how to persuade others to use nonsexist language. Many suggested education. Study 2 participants (N = 201) were asked if they had ever discussed sexist language in instructional settings. Analysis of their attitudes revealed an interaction between gender and instruction. Study 3 (N = 248) tested the effects of 3 types of instruction on student attitudes about sexist/nonsexist language. After a 50-minute intervention, Study 3 participants were generally undecided about sexist/nonsexist language, and their attitudes did not differ across instructional strategies (p > .01). In all conditions, males were significantly less receptive to nonsexist language than females (p < .01). This “gender gap” was magnified by a combination of direct and indirect instruction. Until more is known, the authors propose (a) modeling and (b) instruction grounded in empathy as initial strategies for teaching inclusive language.
Joanne Williams and Heidi M. Parker
Experiential learning has been widely used to impact student engagement and provide opportunities to apply theory to practice (Bower, 2013). Sport management faculty regularly use experiential learning in event management, sales classes and internships (Charlton, 2007; McKelvey & Southall, 2008). In addition, educators often include leadership development within their student learning outcomes (COSMA, 2014; MacKie, 2014). This study examines the effectiveness of leadership development activities implemented in an experiential event management course. A case study approach was selected to demonstrate in-depth development and analysis of the course and the integration of strengths-based leadership activities. Students completed the StrengthFinder assessment (Rath & Conchie, 2009), the Strengths Awareness Measure (Schreiner, 2004), and the Strengths of Self Efficacy Scale (Tsai et al., 2014). Significant increases in strengths awareness were reported along with generally high self-efficacy scores. Students reported positive perceptions of the experiential learning experience and increased levels of engagement.
Melanie Sartore-Baldwin and Catherine Quatman-Yates
The purpose of this study was to introduce ethnographic research to students in two graduate-level sport management courses, assess the extent to which the students benefited throughout the duration of the project, and anticipate future benefits as a result of the project. In response to previous calls for a more thorough integration of theory, research, and practice within sport management curricula, a plan to integrate ethnography projects into a sport management human resource management course and a contemporary issues course was developed and implemented. The strengths and weaknesses of the project are discussed relative to student feedback received through journal excerpts and interviews from the students and instructor fieldnotes. Suggestions and guidelines for future uses of ethnography as a teaching tool are offered.
Daniel F. Mahony, Michael Mondello, Mary A. Hums and Michael R. Judd
Weese (2002) recently expressed concerns about the faculty job market in sport management. The purpose of the current article is to examine and discuss both the number of doctoral students being produced and the adequacy of their preparation for faculty positions. The authors surveyed doctoral-program faculty and reviewed advertised open positions to provide the basis for observations regarding current and future issues relative to this job market. Whereas the authors found that approximately 70 jobs are advertised each year in sport management, doctoral programs produce only about 15 graduates annually, suggesting that the numbers produced are clearly insufficient. When examining the adequacy of the students’ preparation, the authors found research preparation is considered to be most important. Doctoral programs in sport management, however, also place high emphasis on teaching preparation. It is unclear whether these efforts are adequate to meet the needs of the students or the job market.