A 6-wk group balance-training program was conducted with physically active older adults (based on American College of Sports Medicine requirements) to investigate the effect of dose-related static and dynamic balance-specific training. All participants, age 60–87 yr, continued their regular exercise program while adding balance training in 1 of 3 doses: three 20-min sessions/wk (n = 20), one 20-min session/wk (n = 21), or no balance training (n = 19). Static balance (single-leg-stance, tandem), dynamic balance (alternate stepping, limits of stability), and balance confidence (ABC) were assessed pre- and posttraining. Significant interactions were observed for time in single-leg stance, excursion in limits of stability, and balance confidence, with the greatest increase observed in the group that completed 3 training sessions/wk. The results demonstrate a dose-response relationship indicating that those who are already physically active can improve balance performance with the addition of balance-specific training.
Kristen K. Maughan, Kristin A. Lowry, Warren D. Franke and Ann L. Smiley-Oyen
Nicolas Vuillerme, Ludovic Marin and Bettina Debû
This study evaluated stance control in 24 teenagers with and without Down syndrome (DS) by (a) assessing center of foot pressure variables under different conditions of availability of visual and somatosensory inputs and (b) analyzing postural perturbation and adaptation following abrupt changes in visual information. Results showed no gender-related differences in either group. Group comparison revealed similar strategies in adolescents with and without DS, although quantitative differences may exist in the ability to integrate sensory inputs to control stance. Adaptation to changing environmental conditions varied greatly from one individual to another in the two groups. Finally, comparison of the two experiments suggests that the increased postural oscillations reported for the sample with DS on long lasting recordings could be related to insufficient allocation of cognitive resources in stable environments.
Monika Thomas and Michael Kalicinski
The present study investigated whether slackline training enhances postural control in older adults. Twenty-four participants were randomized into an intervention and a control group. The intervention group received 6 weeks of slackline training, two times per week. Pre–post measurement included the time of different standing positions on a balance platform with and without an external disturbance and the acceleration of the balance platform. Results showed significantly improved standing times during one-leg stance without external disturbance and a significantly reduced acceleration of the balance platform for the intervention group after the training period during tandem stance with and without an external disturbance. We conclude that slackline training in older adults has a positive impact on postural control and thus on the reduction of fall risk.
Giorgos Sofianidis, Vassilia Hatzitaki, Stella Douka and Giorgos Grouios
This preliminary study examined the effect of a 10-wk traditional Greek dance program on static and dynamic balance indices in healthy elderly adults. Twenty-six community-dwelling older adults were randomly assigned to either an intervention group who took supervised Greek traditional dance classes for 10 wk (1 hr, 2 sessions/week, n = 14), or a control group (n = 12). Balance was assessed pre- and postintervention by recording the center-of-pressure (COP) variations and trunk kinematics during performance of the Sharpened-Romberg test, 1-leg (OL) stance, and dynamic weight shifting (WS). After practice, the dance group significantly decreased COP displacement and trunk sway in OL stance. A significant increase in the range of trunk rotation was noted during performance of dynamic WS in the sagittal and frontal planes. These findings support the use of traditional dance as an effective means of physical activity for improving static and dynamic balance control in the elderly.
James W. Youdas, Kady E. Adams, John E. Bertucci, Koel J. Brooks, Meghan M. Nelson and John H. Hollman
No published studies have compared muscle activation levels simultaneously for the gluteus maximus and medius muscles of stance and moving limbs during standing hip-joint strengthening while using elastic-tubing resistance.
To quantify activation levels bilaterally of the gluteus maximus and medius during resisted lower-extremity standing exercises using elastic tubing for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercise conditions.
26 active and healthy people, 13 men (25 ± 3 y) and 13 women (24 ± 1 y).
Subjects completed 3 consecutive repetitions of lower-extremity exercises in random order.
Main Outcome Measures:
Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were normalized to peak activity in the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trial and expressed as a percentage. Magnitudes of EMG recruitment were analyzed with a 2 × 4 repeated-measures ANOVA for each muscle (α = .05).
For the gluteus maximus an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F 3,75 = 21.5; P < .001). The moving-limb gluteus maximus was activated more than the stance limb's during the back-pull exercise (P < .001), and moving-limb gluteus maximus muscle recruitment was greater for the back-pull exercise than for the cross-over, reverse cross-over, and front-pull exercises (P < .001). For the gluteus medius an interaction between exercise and limb factor was significant (F 3,75 = 3.7; P < .03). Gluteus medius muscle recruitment (% MVIC) was greater in the stance limb than moving limb when performing the front-pull exercise (P < .001). Moving-limb gluteus medius muscle recruitment was greater for the reverse cross-over exercise than for the cross-over, front-pull, and back-pull exercises (P < .001).
From a clinical standpoint there is no therapeutic benefit to selectively activate the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles on the stance limb by resisting sagittal- and frontal-plane hip movements on the moving limb using resistance supplied by elastic tubing.
Gulcan Harput, A. Ruhi Soylu, Hayri Ertan, Nevin Ergun and Carl G. Mattacola
Coactivation ratio of quadriceps to hamstring muscles (Q:H) and medial to lateral knee muscles (M:L) contributes to the dynamic stability of the knee joint during movement patterns recommended during rehabilitation and important for daily function.
To compare the quadriceps-to-hamstring and medial-to-lateral knee muscles' coactivation ratios between men and women during the following closed kinetic chain exercises performed on a balance board: forward lunge, side lunge, single-leg stance, and single-leg squat.
20 healthy subjects (10 female and 10 male).
Main Outcome Measures:
Surface electromyography was used to measure the activation level of quadriceps (vastus lateralis and medialis) and hamstrings (biceps femoris and medial hamstrings) during forward- and side-lunge, single-leg-stance, and single-leg-squat exercises. Subjects were instructed during each exercise to move into the test position and to hold that position for 15 s. EMG was recorded during the 15-s isometric period where subjects tried to maintain a “set” position while the foot was on a balance board. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis.
There was a significant exercise-by-gender interaction for Q:H ratio (F 3,48 = 6.63, P = .001), but the exercise-by-gender interaction for M:L ratio was not significant (F 3,48 = 1.67, P = .18). Women showed larger Q:H ratio in side-lunge exercises than men (P = .002). Both genders showed larger M:L and lower Q:H ratio in a single-leg-stance exercise than in the other exercises.
The results indicate that the forward- and side-lunge and single-leg-squat exercises should not be recommended as exercise where a balanced coactivation between quadriceps and hamstring muscles is warranted. Single-leg-stance exercise could be used when seeking an exercise where the ratio is balanced for both women and men.
Jonathan K. Holm, Jonas Contakos, Sang-Wook Lee and John Jang
This study investigated the energetics of the human ankle during the stance phase of downhill walking with the goal of modeling ankle behavior with a passive spring and damper mechanism. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected on eight male participants while walking down a ramp with inclination varying from 0° to 8°. The ankle joint moment in the sagittal plane was calculated using inverse dynamics. Mechanical energy injected or dissipated at the ankle joint was computed by integrating the power across the duration of the stance phase. The net mechanical energy of the ankle was approximately zero for level walking and monotonically decreased (i.e., became increasingly negative) during downhill walking as the slope decreased. The indication is that the behavior of the ankle is energetically passive during downhill walking, playing a key role in dissipating energy from one step to the next. A passive mechanical model consisting of a pin joint coupled with a revolute spring and damper was fit to the ankle torque and its parameters were estimated for each downhill slope using linear regression. The passive model demonstrated good agreement with actual ankle dynamics as indicated by low root-mean-square error values. These results indicate the stance phase behavior of the human ankle during downhill walking may be effectively duplicated by a passive mechanism with appropriately selected spring and damping characteristics.
Stephen C. Cobb, Mukta N. Joshi and Robin L. Pomeroy
In-vitro and invasive in-vivo studies have reported relatively independent motion in the medial and lateral forefoot segments during gait. However, most current surface-based models have not defined medial and lateral forefoot or midfoot segments. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reliability of a 7-segment foot model that includes medial and lateral midfoot and forefoot segments during walking gait. Three-dimensional positions of marker clusters located on the leg and 6 foot segments were tracked as 10 participants completed 5 walking trials. To examine the reliability of the foot model, coefficients of multiple correlation (CMC) were calculated across the trials for each participant. Three-dimensional stance time series and range of motion (ROM) during stance were also calculated for each functional articulation. CMCs for all of the functional articulations were ≥ 0.80. Overall, the rearfoot complex (leg–calcaneus segments) was the most reliable articulation and the medial midfoot complex (calcaneus–navicular segments) was the least reliable. With respect to ROM, reliability was greatest for plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and least for abduction/adduction. Further, the stance ROM and time-series patterns results between the current study and previous invasive in-vivo studies that have assessed actual bone motion were generally consistent.
Michal N. Glinka, Kim P. Cheema, Stephen N. Robinovitch and Andrew C. Laing
Safety floors (also known as compliant floors) may reduce the risk of fall-related injuries by attenuating impact force during falls, but are only practical if they do not negatively affect balance and mobility. In this study, we evaluated seven safety surfaces based on their ability to attenuate peak femoral neck force during simulated hip impacts, and their influence on center of pressure (COP) sway during quiet and tandem stance. Overall, we found that some safety floors can attenuate up to 33.7% of the peak femoral impact force without influencing balance. More specifically, during simulated hip impacts, force attenuation for the safety floors ranged from 18.4 (SD 4.3)% to 47.2 (3.1)%, with each floor significantly reducing peak force compared with a rigid surface. For quiet stance, only COP root mean square was affected by flooring (and increased for only two safety floors). During tandem stance, COP root mean square and mean velocity increased in the medial-lateral direction for three of the seven floors. Based on the substantial force attenuation with no concomitant effects on balance for some floors, these results support the development of clinical trials to assess the effectiveness of safety floors at reducing fall-related injuries in high-risk settings.
Zheng Wang, Kimberlee Jordan and Karl M. Newell
In this study, two force platforms were synchronized to investigate the coordination of the right and left foot center of pressure (COPR and COPL) and its relation to the COPNET in the control of 5 upright postures with and without visual information. The results revealed that the standard deviation (SD) of COPL, COPR, and COPNET progressively increased in the more challenging staggered and tandem stances, respectively, and to a lesser degree with the absence of visual information. Circular analysis of the relative phase of COPL and COPR revealed that the coupling pattern and variability were dependent on postural stances and the availability of vision. A negative correlation between the variability of the relative phase of the two feet COPs and the SD of the COPNET in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction was evident most strongly in the no vision conditions. Thus, the asymmetry of the mechanical constraints on the feet as a function of stance organize the coordination patterns of the feet COPs while the degree of adaptive variation between the feet COPs is dependent on both the mechanical constraints and the availability of vision.