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Mack D Rubley, Jody B Brucker, Kenneth L Knight, Mark D Ricard and David O Draper


To determine the retention of flexibility 25 days after 5 days of three 30-second stretches.


A 2 × 4 repeated-measures factorial. Treatment and time were independent variables. The dependent variable was flexibility as measured by a sit-and-reach box.


33 college students were tested before and after stretching for 5 consecutive days and without stretching on days 8 and 30. Control subjects were prone for 15 minutes; stretch subjects received 15 min of diathermy or sham diathermy and then performed three 30-second standing right-hamstring stretches.


Flexibility was greater on days 5, 8, and 30 than day 1, but days 5, 8, and 30 were not different from each other.


Gains in flexibility are retained for at least 3 weeks after a stretching program. It also appears that 2 sets of 3 repetitions of a sit-and-reach test is sufficient stimulus to induce long-term flexibility gains.

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Arms stretch to the sides of the body either just below shoulder height (Russian) or sloping downward and slightly rounded (Cecchetti)."

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Arms stretch to the sides of the body either just below shoulder height (Russian) or sloping downward and slightly rounded (Cecchetti)."

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Arms stretch to the sides of the body either just below shoulder height (Russian) or sloping downward and slightly rounded (Cecchetti).

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Zachary K. Winkelmann, Ethan J. Roberts and Kenneth E. Games

when they felt a strong, but bearable stretch. To form a baseline for measurement, we zeroed both digital inclinometers (Figure  1 ). We performed the PSLR by cupping the participant’s calcaneus and slowly moved the participant into hip flexion keeping the knee straight. We recorded the value from the

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Robert J. Bonser, Christy L. Hancock, Bethany L. Hansberger, Rick A. Loutsch, Eric K. Stanford, Alli K. Zeigel, Russell T. Baker, James May, Alan Nasypany and Scott Cheatham

Clinical Scenario:

Hamstring tightness is a common condition leading to dysfunctional or restricted movement that is often treated with stretching. Neurodynamics has been proposed as an alternative to stretching by targeting the neural system rather than muscle tissue.

Focused Clinical Question:

In an active population, what is the effect of using neurodynamic sliders compared with stretching on traditional measures of range of motion (ROM)?

Summary of Key Findings:

The authors of a well-designed study found that neurodynamic sliders were more effective than static stretching, while the authors of 2 less-well-designed studies reported no difference with static stretching or that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching was more effective than neurodynamic sliders.

Clinical Bottom Line:

Evidence exists to support the use of neurodynamic sliders to increase measures of hamstring ROM in patients who present with limited hamstring flexibility; however, the effectiveness of neurodynamic sliders compared with traditional stretching is inconclusive.

Strength of Recommendation:

Grade B evidence exists that neurodynamic sliders perform as well as traditional stretching techniques at increasing measures of hamstring ROM in patients with limited hamstring flexibility.

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Jereme Wilroy and Elizabeth Hibberd

strength assessments during the project. Figure 2 —Rotational strength assessments. Following the preintervention screening, a 5-minute injury prevention program was taught to participants that included strengthening exercises with therapeutic bands and shoulder stretches. The strengthening exercises

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Katrina G. Ritter, Matthew J. Hussey and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

80% of the initial bike test for 5 or 6 times per week for 6 wk. The stretching groups completed a full-body stretching program with new stretches each week Participants had a choice between walking/light jogging or stationary bicycle for the aerobic activity Outcome measure(s) (1) Symptoms (2

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W. Steven Tucker and Stephen W. Slone


Clinicians use various stretching techniques to prevent the onset of and treat glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD). It is unknown which stretching technique is the most effective.


To investigate the acute effects of hold–relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) with and without vibration therapy on internal rotation in individuals with GIRD.


2-within (stretch × time) comparison with repeated measures.


Controlled laboratory.


11 male current and former overhead athletes (19.8 ± 1.4 y, 184.5 ± 4.5 cm, 91.8 ± 11.6 kg) who presented with GIRD.


At 3 separate sessions, participants performed 1 of 3 randomly assigned stretches: hold–relax PNF (PNF), hold–relax PNF in combination with a whole-body-vibration unit set at 30 Hz (PNF-V), and static stretch (SS). Pretest and posttest maximum passive glenohumeral internal-rotation measurements were taken with a digital protractor.

Main Outcome Measures:

The dependent variables were the mean glenohumeral internal-rotation measurements taken at the pretest and posttest. The influence of stretch (PNF, PNF-V, and SS) and time (pretest and posttest) on mean glenohumeral internal rotation was compared using a 3 × 2 factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on both variables (P ≤ .05).


There was a stretch-by-time interaction (F 2,20 = 34.697, P < .001). Post hoc testing revealed that the PNF posttest (73.0° ± 10.4°) was greater than the PNF pretest (60.0° ± 11.8°), the PNF-V posttest (74.7° ± 10.0°) was greater than the PNF-V pretest (57.4° ± 10.4°), and the SS posttest (67.0° ± 10.7°) was greater than the SS pretest (60.1° ± 9.4°). When comparing the posttest values, the PNF-V posttest was greater than the SS posttest.


All 3 stretches (PNF, PNF-V, and SS) resulted in acute increases in glenohumeral internal rotation in individuals presenting with GIRD. The PNF-V stretch resulted in the greatest increase and would be the most clinically beneficial for patients with GIRD.

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Sahba Taslimipour, Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi, Ladan Hemmati and Iman Rezaei

and RT groups. Interventions Both RT and VRRT consisted of exercises for 12 sessions, 3 days a week every other day during 4 weeks. If participants were unable to attend any session, a compensatory session was scheduled for the missed session. RT consisted of stretching and strengthening exercises