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Astrid C.J. Balemans, Han Houdijk, Gilbert R. Koelewijn, Marjolein Piek, Frank Tubbing, Anne Visser-Meily and Olaf Verschuren

volume analyzer was calibrated with a 3-L calibration pump. Muscle Activity Muscle activity was recorded using a wireless bipolar surface electromyography (EMG) system (eMotion Faros; Mega Electronics Ltd, Kuopio, Finland). Surface EMG is a valid measure for muscle activity. 31 The skin was shaved and

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Jared R. Fletcher and Brian R. MacIntosh

, 18 the ankle was moved through the range of motion at least 4 times prior to beginning data collection. To monitor muscle activation during the passive trial, 2 pairs of surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes (Norotrode 20 Bipolar Ag–AgCl electrodes, Myotronics Inc, Kent, WA; interelectrode

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Miguel Sánchez-Moreno, David Rodríguez-Rosell, Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Ricardo Mora-Custodio and Juan José González-Badillo

, 17 climbing, 18 and kayaking. 19 Furthermore, it has traditionally been used to assess upper-body strength and muscular endurance in different populations. 13 , 20 , 21 Studies have analyzed the joint movement and work, 22 surface electromyography activation patterns, 20 , 23 , 24 similarities

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Michael E. Hales and John D. Johnson II

the lead-practitioner attaching surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes to the predetermined sites of the lower extremity. Afterward, the participant ran through the test course at a low-intensity pace for 5 minutes, minus the farmer’s carry and weighted sled pull. This accomplished 2 objectives: (1

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Andrew D. Nordin and Janet S. Dufek

.dib.2016.07.011 27508258 28. De Luca CJ . The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics . J Appl Biomech . 1997 ; 13 : 135 – 163 . 10.1123/jab.13.2.135 10.1123/jab.13.2.135 29. James CR , Herman JA , Dufek JS , Bates BT . Number of trials necessary to achieve performance stability of

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Garrett M. Hester, Zachary K. Pope, Mitchel A. Magrini, Ryan J. Colquhoun, Alejandra Barrera-Curiel, Carlos A. Estrada, Alex A. Olmos and Jason M. DeFreitas

, but whether these adaptations are maintained in the long term cannot be determined. With regard to the cross education aspect of the study, optimally surface electromyography should have been used to ensure the contralateral leg remained relaxed during training rather than verbal instruction alone

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Israel Halperin, Andrew D. Vigotsky, Carl Foster and David B. Pyne

.1377/hlthaff.24.1.67 15. Aronson J . Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints . Br J Clin Pharmacol . 2005 ; 59 ( 5 ): 491 – 494 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02435.x 15842546 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2005.02435.x 16. Stastny P , Gołas´ A , Blazek D , et al . A systematic review of surface

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Renato Claudino, Marcio José dos Santos and Giovana Zarpellon Mazo

 al., 2013 ; Santos & Aruin, 2008 ). The same experimenter performed all the procedures described above following Surface Electromyography for the Noninvasive Assessment of Muscles standards ( Hermens, Freriks, Disselhorst-Klug, & Rau, 2000 ). We required the participants to stand barefoot on the force

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Andressa Busch Rocha Pereira and Renato Moraes

cameras (MXT-40S; Vicon, Oxford, UK) and collected at a sampling frequency of 200 Hz. Also, we placed six surface electromyography (EMG) electrodes (Trigno Wireless; Delsys, Natick, MA) bilaterally on the belly of the gastrocnemius (lateral and medial portions) and tibialis anterior muscles and collected

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Andrea Biscarini, Samuele Contemori and Giuditta Grolla

this study stems from the use of surface electromyography and the consequent lack of information about the activity of relevant deep core muscles, primarily the transversus abdominis. Another potential limitation regards the degree of instability selected for the tests and determined by the radius of