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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

are superior to omnivorous diets for improving athletic training, health, or performance. Fasting Diets Fasting is characterized by the absence of energy intake for sustained period of time ranging from several hours to days ( Maughan et al., 2010 ). It is not a new concept, but an age-old practice

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Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

anthocyanins (80 mg/day) do not affect muscle damage and fatigue sustained from the marathon. Bell et al. ( 2014 ) examined in trained cyclists the responses of Montmorency cherry extract on multiple bouts of 109-min stochastic road cycling simulation with intake 4 days precycling and 3 consecutive days of

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk

/peak anaerobic power for athletes. These Italian researchers developed a simple stair-running test and showed that peak power was reached after 1.5 to 2 seconds and could be sustained for 4 to 5 seconds. Later, scientists have proposed and applied specific tests for varying modalities. The test specificities for

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Luana T. Rossato, Camila T.M. Fernandes, Públio F. Vieira, Flávia M.S. de Branco, Paula C. Nahas, Guilherme M. Puga and Erick P. de Oliveira

, characterized by their voluntary withdrawal. The V peak of the incremental test was calculated based on the velocity of the last complete stage, where V peak  = full V  +  t / T  × increase in speed. In this equation, full V was the speed (km·h −1 ) in the last stage, t was the time (s) sustained during

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Bruno Ferreira Viana, Flávio Oliveira Pires, Allan Inoue and Tony Meireles Santos

in both the HP and LP groups but decreased 5% to 7% relative to OBLA as the XCO test progressed, thereby suggesting that the capacity to sustain OBLA may be important in XCO performance. 2 Note that although there was a significant correlation observed between W absolute and OBLA power output in

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A. Savoie and Jonathan Gosselin

gradient for the flow of fluid from inside to outside of the tubular lumen. On the other hand, sodium integration into the extracellular fluid pool contributed in maintaining a sustained stimulation of osmoreceptors despite hypervolemia, thereby preventing large excretion of fluid. Primarily due to the

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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

Field hockey is an intermittent team sport that requires a high level of fitness to sustain physical, technical, and mental performance during training sessions and matches. Male players cover approximately 7 km during a regulation match ( Lythe & Kilding, 2011 ) and 5–10 km during a typical 2-hr

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Diego B. Souza, Michael Duncan and Marcos D. Polito

context of the BFR-resistance exercise model, sustained blood flow reduction to the muscle during exercise may reduce intramuscular calcium influx, 14 which could theoretically limit the effect of CAF on the excitation–contraction coupling process in skeletal muscles. However, the possible ergogenic

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Jeremiah J. Peiffer, Chris R. Abbiss, Eric C. Haakonssen and Paolo Menaspà

published finish times for each cyclist, the final 1 minute of each race was isolated and plotted against time for the determination of the final sprint. The final sprint was defined as the point at which a rapid and sustained increase in power output was observed, immediately before the completion of the

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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey and Haley C. Bergstrom

anaerobic power measurement in college football players . J Strength Cond Res . 1989 ; 3 ( 4 ): 101 – 106 . doi:10.1519/00124278-198911000-00004 23. McClave SA , LeBlanc M , Hawkins SA . Sustainability of critical power determined by a 3-minute all-out test in elite cyclists . J Strength Cond