The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and analyze published research on teaching in physical education. (RT-PE). An exhaustive search was performed to identify RT-PE since 1980. Over 2,700 papers were reviewed, and 179 met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Each paper was categorized to obtain detailed information on focus, design, and publication outlet. The results indicated that most RT-PE focused on teacher effectiveness and was quantitative. While much of the research met the minimum demands of good research in the area, some research clearly could be improved. In addition, the Journal of Teaching Physical Education was the major outlet for the research and various other trends were found about publication outlets.
Stephen Silverman and Ronald Skonie
Paul G. Schempp
An analysis of student teaching was made to determine how student teachers defined becoming a better teacher based on their actual teaching experiences in the gymnasium. Specifically, two definitions were derived from experiences the subjects identified as indicative of either progress or no progress in becoming a better teacher. A critical incident technique was employed to collect and analyze data from 20 student teachers. Data were collected in the second, sixth, and ninth weeks of a 10-week experience. Reliability of data was established by comparing exact agreements between the investigator and five impartial judges. The results of this study suggested the student teachers defined a better teacher through experiences in which a teacher-planned lesson activity was felt to have worked due to the entire class responding to the teacher’s efforts with appropriate social behavior. Incidents not indicative of a better teacher were those whereby the student teachers felt an activity they tried did not work, resulting in wasted time and inappropriate social behavior by the entire class. Further, it was found these definitions did not change throughout the student teaching experience.
Nell Faucette, Thomas L. McKenzie and James F. Sallis
A primary purpose of this study was to describe differences between self-contained and team teaching approaches when two groups of fourth- and fifth-grade classroom teachers attempted to implement a physical education curriculum during a 4-month in-service program. One school featured team teaching in pairs during physical education classes; the other used a self-contained teaching approach. The program required a minimum of three 30-min physical education classes weekly. All teachers participated in an extensive in-service training program that included weekly on-site assistance. Data collection included teachers’ lesson-completion forms, specialist’s reports, SOFIT PE class observations, teacher-completed Stages of Concern questionnaires, and teachers’ formal interviews. Results indicated that classroom teachers who used the self-contained model more consistently implemented the curriculum and more frequently expressed positive responses. Participants who used the team model for the physical education curriculum frequently strayed from the assigned pedagogical approach, ignored major portions of the program, and experienced extreme management concerns.
Gordon A. Bloom, Rebecca Crumpton and Jenise E. Anderson
A systematic observation analysis was performed on Fresno State men’s basketball coach Jerry Tarkanian over the course of an entire season. Based on Tharp and Gallimore’s (1976) work and recent research on expert coaches’ training techniques (Côté et al., 1995; Durand-Bush, 1996), the Revised Coaching Behavior Recording Form was created to observe and record Tarkanian’s teaching behaviors and verbal cues. Results showed that tactical instructions was the most frequently occurring variable, representing 29% of the coded behaviors. This behavior was 13% higher than the second highest variable, hustles (16%). Following these two categories were technical instruction (13.9%), praise\encouragement (13.6%), general instructions (12%), scolds (6%), and six other categories with percentages less than 3%. This means that almost one-third of Coach Tarkanian’s practice behaviors relate to teaching offensive and defensive strategies to his team. This differs from the practice sessions of beginner- and intermediate-level coaches, who often focus on teaching fundamental skills to their athletes. A complete description of all 12 categories are provided along with implications for coaches of all levels.
E. William Vogler, Hans Van der Mars, Barbara E. Cusimano and Paul Darst
Teaching effectiveness with elementary level mainstreamed and nondisabled children was analyzed from the perspective of teacher experience and expertise. There were three analyses: (a) experienced (12.6 yrs) versus less experienced (2.3 yrs) teachers, n=10 each, (b) expert (met 4 of 5 criteria) versus nonexpert (met no criteria) teachers, n=5 each, and (c) expert (met 4 of 5 criteria) versus experienced (no criteria, similar experience) teachers, n=4 each. Classes were matched on activities. Teaching effectiveness was evaluated by analysis of how the teacher allocated class time and how time was spent by the student. Specifically, motor appropriate, on- and off-task data were collected on one mainstreamed and one nondisabled student from each class. Results indicated that teacher behavior differed little as a function of either experience or expertise. Mainstreamed students were significantly less motor appropriate and more off-task than nondisabled students, and neither experience nor expertise significantly altered those differences. The results imply that greater teacher experience or expertise does not necessarily translate into improvements of teacher and student behavior, and simple placement of mainstreamed students with teachers with more experience or expertise may not necessarily be beneficial.
Kathryn L. Davis
This review is an examination of selected literature from the past thirty years on gender equity in physical education. It is organized in terms of (1) defining the theoretical framework of gender equity, (2) the origins of gender equity in physical education from Title IX legislation, (3) the influence of teacher behavior and the curriculum in providing an equitable class environment, and (4) the applications and implications of gender equity for the physical education practitioner. Despite the well-developed research in the field of physical education about the prevalence of gender inequities exhibited by teachers, there are a few recent research studies in which the authors have failed to show this inequitable treatment. As research has progressed in this area, it is important to note that teachers may be improving in the area of equitable interactions with students of different genders. This review concludes with some suggestions for further research in the area of teaching for gender equity in physical education.
Nell Faucette, Peg Nugent, James F. Sallis and Thomas L. McKenzie
Classroom teachers’ responses to a 2-year professional development program are presented. Sixteen 4th- and 5th-grade teachers involved in Project SPARK completed structured interviews, questionnaires, and written evaluations of program sessions. Although in Year 1 more than half of the teachers expressed concerns about schedules and equipment management, results indicated that the program helped increase their self-confidence when teaching physical education. Participants believed that students benefitted from their enhanced knowledge and instructional behaviors. Program components most appreciated included: the input received and responsiveness of the design team; opportunities to collaborate, discuss concerns, and problem-solve with each other and the facilitators; and having on-site and large-group-session modeling. Results indicated that the teachers were less enthusiastic about a self-management curriculum due to its behavioral emphasis, yet supported the assertion that an ongoing, supportive professional development program can substantially improve classroom teachers’ physical education programs.
Kathy C. Graham, Karen E. French and Amelia M. Woods
The ability to observe and interpret events during instruction is thought to be an important dimension of effective teachers. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to observe and interpret teaching physical education at different stages of expertise. Ten freshman preservice students, 7 experienced junior students, and 2 teacher educators served as subjects. Each subject viewed a 15-minute videotaped lesson on basketball dribbling taught to approximately 20 third-grade students. Subjects were instructed to observe the lesson, take notes, and write a description or evaluation of what they observed during the lesson. Experienced students wrote substantially more evaluative interpretations than novice preservice students. The interpretations of the experienced preservice students were similar to the teacher educators in the focus of observation and the use of a technical language. However, teacher educators’ interpretations were more organized and were focused more on lesson occurrences that influenced students’ motor-skill performance.
Phillip Ward and Bomna Ko
We examined publication trends in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE) in terms of total representation as well as trends by decade of the (a) sex and country of affiliation of editors, (b) sex and country of affiliation of editorial board members, (c) sex and country of affiliation of first authors, (d) types of manuscripts published, and (e) foci of those manuscripts. Overall results suggest that female scholars have achieved parity in terms in editorships and editorial memberships on the JTPE board. In terms of international representation, whereas the editorships remain predominately in the hands of those from the United States, there is an increasing international representation on the editorial board. The majority of submissions come from the United States, with just under one-sixth coming from other countries. In terms of the focus and type of manuscript published, results show a diverse range, thus reflecting a nonpartisan journal defined by problems and settings, rather than methodology or ideology.
Adam G. Pfleegor and Chad S. Seifried
The debate between building new sport and recreation facilities or renovating existing venues has engrossed sport managers (Barghchi, Omar, & Aman, 2009; Galvan, 2006; Grant-Long, 2005; Rosentraub & Ijla, 2008; Seifried, 2010). Interestingly, the individuals entrusted with making investment decisions on these facilities often lack knowledge of this process. Many sport management programs include courses related to facility management; however, they rarely include curriculum items on the renovation of culturally valuable sport and recreation buildings. The main purpose of this paper is to propose heritage management as an important component to sport and recreational facility management and to showcase an example of this initiative that was incorporated into a facility management class. This teaching methodology on heritage management allows students to understand how to create valuable contributions to their field while simultaneously learning about the culture and history of sport venues.