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Maria Hagströmer, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Lydia Kwak and Heather R. Bowles

Context:

The quality of methodological papers assessing physical activity instruments depends upon the rigor of a study’s design.

Objectives:

We present a checklist to assess key criteria for instrument validation studies.

Process:

A Medline/PubMed search was performed to identify guidelines for evaluating the methodological quality of instrument validation studies. Based upon the literature, a pilot version of a checklist was developed consisting of 21 items with 3 subscales: 1) quality of the reported data (9 items: assess whether the reported information is sufficient to make an unbiased assessment of the findings); 2) external validity of the results (3 items: assess the extent to which the findings are generalizable); 3) internal validity of the study (9 items: assess the rigor of the study design). The checklist was tested for interrater reliability and feasibility with 6 raters.

Findings:

Raters viewed the checklist as helpful for reviewing studies. They suggested minor wording changes for 8 items to clarify intent. One item was divided into 2 items for a total of 22 items.

Discussion:

Checklists may be useful to assess the quality of studies designed to validate physical activity instruments. Future research should test checklist internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion validity.

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Lucie Péloquin, Pierre Gauthier, Gina Bravo, Guy Lacombe and Jean-Sébastien Billiard

The purposes of the present study were (a) to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Price et al. (1988) 5-min walking field test, (b) to assess the validity of the test as an estimate of aerobic fitness, and (c) to derive a predictive model for estimating V˙O2 peak. The subjects were men and women age ≥50 with knee osteoarthritis. A high intraclass correlation coefficient was obtained in the reliability study, which included 60 subjects who did the 5-min walk twice within a maximum of 11 days. For the validity study, distances walked at the first walking trial were compared with V˙O2 peak values measured by a maximal treadmill test. The best predictive model included the following predictor variables: distance walked in 5 min, age, sex, and weight. Results indicate that the 5-minutc walking field test is a reliable and valid method for estimating V˙O2 peak in this population.

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Renee M. Jeffreys, Thomas H. Inge, Todd M. Jenkins, Wendy C. King, Vedran Oruc, Andrew D. Douglas and Molly S. Bray

Background:

The accuracy of physical activity (PA) monitors to discriminate between PA, sedentary behavior, and nonwear in extremely obese (EO) adolescents is unknown.

Methods:

Twenty-five subjects (9 male/16 female; age = 16.5 ± 2.0 y; BMI = 51 ± 8 kg/m2) wore 3 activity monitors (StepWatch [SAM], Actical [AC], Actiheart [AH]) during a 400-m walk test (400MWT), 2 standardized PA bouts of varying duration, and 1 sedentary bout.

Results:

For the 400MWT, percent error between observed and monitor-recorded steps was 5.5 ± 7.1% and 82.1 ± 38.6% for the SAM and AC steps, respectively (observed vs. SAM steps: −17.2 ± 22.2 steps; observed vs. AC steps: −264.5 ± 124.8 steps). All activity monitors were able to differentiate between PA and sedentary bouts, but only SAM steps and AH heart rate were significantly different between sedentary behavior and nonwear (P < .001). For all monitors, sedentary behavior was characterized by bouts of zero steps/counts punctuated by intermittent activity steps/counts; nonwear was represented almost exclusively by zero steps/counts.

Conclusion:

Of all monitors tested, the SAM was most accurate in terms of counting steps and differentiating levels of PA and thus, most appropriate for EO adolescents. The ability to accurately characterize PA intensity in EO adolescents critically depends on activity monitor selection.

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Michelle M. Yore, Sandra A. Ham, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Caroline A. Macera, Deborah A. Jones and Harold W. Kohl III

Background:

In 2001, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included a new occupational physical activity (PA) question. This article evaluates the reliability of this survey question.

Methods:

Forty-six subjects were followed for 3 wk, answered 3 PA surveys by telephone, and completed daily PA logs for 1 wk. Kappa statistics determined the reliability of occupational activities (sitting/standing, walking, and heavy lifting). A descriptive analysis compared the time in specific occupational activities.

Results:

Eighty percent of the respondents reported “mostly sitting or standing” at work; and test–retest reliability was moderate (k = 0.40 to 0.45). The occupationally inactive sat/stood for 85% (mean hours = 5.6) of the workday, whereas the occupationally active sat/stood for 53% (mean hours = 3.9) of the workday.

Conclusions:

The BRFSS occupational activity question has moderate reliability, distinguishes between occupationally active and inactive persons, and can be used in surveillance systems to estimate adult occupational PA.

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Jean-Philippe Heuzé and Paul Fontayne

The present report provides a summary of five studies undertaken to develop a French-language instrument to assess cohesiveness in sport teams—the “Questionnaire sur l’Ambiance du Groupe” (QAG). For the initial version of the instrument, the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) was translated into French using the protocol outlined by Vallerand (1989). However, psychometric analyses undertaken in Studies 1, 2, and 3 failed to yield acceptable evidence of construct validity. Items were then revised in an attempt to make them more suitable for the French culture. Subsequent analyses in Study 4 provided support for the construct validity and reliability (internal consistency and interscale equivalence) of the QAG. In Study 5, predictive validity was demonstrated. The QAG has been found to possess satisfactory psychometric properties as a measure of cohesion in sport teams.

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Jochen Klenk, Gisela Büchele, Ulrich Lindemann, Sabrina Kaufmann, Raphael Peter, Roman Laszlo, Susanne Kobel and Dietrich Rothenbacher

The aim of this study was to assess concurrent validity between activPAL and activPAL3 accelerometers in a sample of 53 community-dwelling older adults ≥ 65 years. Physical activity (PA) was measured simultaneously with activPAL and activPAL3 while performing scripted activities. The level of agreement between both devices was calculated for sitting/lying, standing, and walking. In addition, PA was measured over one week using activPAL to estimate the expected agreement with activPAL3 in real life. Overall agreement between activPAL and activPAL3 was 97%. Compared with activPAL, the largest disagreement was seen for standing, with 5% categorized as walking by activPAL3. For walking and sitting/lying, the disagreement was 2%, respectively. The expected daily differences between activPAL3 and activPAL were +15.0 min (95% CI: 11.3ߝ18.8) for walking and +29.5 min (95% CI: 6.2–52.7) for standing. ActivPAL and activPAL3 showed good agreement in older adults. However, if using these devices interchangeably, observed differences might still bias results.

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Faisal Awad Barwais, Thomas F. Cuddihy, Tracy Washington, L. Michaud Tomson and Eric Brymer

Background:

Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behavior (SB) are major public health concerns. This study was designed to develop and validate the 7-day Sedentary (S) and Light Intensity Physical Activity (LIPA) Log (7-day SLIPA Log), a self-report measure of specific daily behaviors.

Method:

To develop the log, 62 specific SB and LIPA behaviors were chosen from the Compendium of Physical Activities. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 sedentary volunteers to identify domains and behaviors of SB and LIPA. To validate the log, a further 22 sedentary adults were recruited to wear the GT3x for 7 consecutive days and nights.

Results:

Pearson correlations (r) between the 7-day SLIPA Log and GT3x were significant for sedentary (r = .86, P < .001), for LIPA (r = .80, P < .001). Lying and sitting postures were positively correlated with GT3x output (r = .60 and r = .64, P < .001, respectively). No significant correlation was found for standing posture (r = .14, P = .53).The kappa values between the 7-day SLIPA Log and GT3x variables ranged from 0.09 to 0.61, indicating poor to good agreement.

Conclusion:

The 7-day SLIPA Log is a valid self-report measure of SB and LIPA in specific behavioral domains.

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Dany Lafontaine and Mario Lamontagne

Many human activities, particularly sporting skills, occur over large distances. But technical limitations have forced biomechanists to conduct studies only on portions of such skills. In this paper we present the design and validation of a mobile data collection system composed of a camera cart that allows the tracking of athletes along a larger portion of their movements. A key feature of this system is that it requires only a small field of view to record and analyze joint motions. The validation of this method was conducted with three approaches. For all approaches, intermarker distances obtained from real measures were compared to those obtained from digitized video data. In all three experiments, the results proved to be within the accepted error range of 5%. The net differences between measured values and digitized values ranged from 0.8 to 3 mm, while the relative errors ranged from 0.2 to 6%. This first experimentation using a mobile camera array to collect and reconstruct biomechanical data has proven to be valid and worth pursuing for recording and analyzing ice hockey skating.

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Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret and François Cury

during PE tests has not been specifically studied, and no measure of test anxiety in PE has been available. The aim of the present research is to develop and validate a scale to specifically assess test anxiety in PE. Assessing Test Anxiety Perception of examinations and other assessment situations as

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David Xiaoqian Sun, Gordon Schmidt and Sock Miang Teo-Koh

This is a validation study of the RT3 accelerometer for measuring physical activities of children in simulated free-living conditions. Twenty-five children age 12–14 years completed indoor testing, and 18 of them completed outdoor testing. Activity counts from the RT3 accelerometer estimated activity energy expenditure (AEE) and the Cosmed K4b2 analyzer measured oxygen uptake. Correlations were found between activity counts and metabolic cost (r = .95, p < .001), metabolic cost and RT3 estimated AEE (r = .96, p < .001) in the indoor test, activity counts and RT3 estimated AEE (r = .97, p < .001) in the outdoor test, and activity counts and metabolic cost when all activities were combined (r = .77, p < .001). Results indicate that the RT3 accelerometer might be used to provide acceptable estimates of free-living physical activity in children.