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Eduardo Macedo Penna, Edson Filho, Samuel Penna Wanner, Bruno Teobaldo Campos, Gabriel Resende Quinan, Thiago Teixeira Mendes, Mitchell Robert Smith and Luciano Sales Prado

the mental fatigue manipulation and a delta of 1.2% in the total exercise time is greater, for example, than the differences found between the 3 medalists in the 2016 Olympic Games 1500-m swimming (delta of 0.72% in time). Thus, these effects of mental fatigue on physical performance and mean speed

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Margo Mountjoy, Jorunn Sundgot-Borgen, Louise Burke, Kathryn E. Ackerman, Cheri Blauwet, Naama Constantini, Constance Lebrun, Bronwen Lundy, Anna Melin, Nanna Meyer, Roberta Sherman, Adam S. Tenforde, Monica Klungland Torstveit and Richard Budgett

Japanese elite, collegiate runners reported more upper respiratory symptoms and lower immunoglobulin A secretion rates in the amenorrheic versus eumenorrheic athletes ( Shimizu et al., 2012 ). Meanwhile, in observational studies of elite Australian athletes in preparation for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

.1080/02640414.2013.878807 10.1080/02640414.2013.878807 24506144 21. Renfree A , Mytton GJ , Skorski S , St Clair Gibson A . Tactical considerations in the middle-distance running events at the 2012 Olympic games: a case study . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2014 ; 9 ( 2 ): 362 – 364 . PubMed ID: 23921156 doi

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Arthur H. Bossi, Ciaran O’Grady, Richard Ebreo, Louis Passfield and James G. Hopker

requires competitors to dismount, carry their bikes while running, and remount. These features elicit intermittent high-intensity efforts throughout the race. 1 Despite being absent in the Olympic Games, cyclo-cross is a popular discipline, and its World Championships have been contested since 1950

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Verity Booth, Alex Rowlands and James Dollman

which was introduced in 1997 ( 20 ), could have been a significant influence on the observed increase in participation between 1985 and 2004. During this time span, the interest generated by the Sydney Olympic Games may have also positively influenced adolescent female participation within this

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Kathryn E. Phillips and Will G. Hopkins

Championships or Olympic Games) could explain these differences. Factors shown to affect match outcomes in other sports may also affect cyclists’ chances of winning races, including momentum (that in a best-of-3 contest, the player who wins the previous match will be more likely to win the subsequent match), 22

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Levi Heimans, Wouter R. Dijkshoorn, Marco J.M. Hoozemans and Jos J. de Koning

Olympic Games, velocities up to 17.5 m/s can be reached in the steady-state phase. Since individual drag coefficients are velocity dependent, also within a team, the magnitude of the drafting effect and the relative contribution of aerodynamic characteristics of team members might be altered at higher

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John Molphy, John W. Dickinson, Neil J. Chester, Mike Loosemore and Gregory Whyte

; 45 ( 14 ): 1126 – 1131 . PubMed ID: 20647298 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.072520 20647298 10.1136/bjsm.2010.072520 4. Fitch KD . β 2 -Agonists at the Olympic games . Clin Rev Allergy Immunol . 2006 ; 31 ( 2–3 ): 259 – 268 . doi:10.1385/CRIAI:31:2:259 17085798 10.1385/CRIAI:31:2:259 5. Driessen JM

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Paul G. Montgomery and Brendan D. Maloney

league competing in exotic locations around the world, and has now been included in the 2020 Olympic Games. Given that 3 × 3 basketball is a relatively new sport, little is known regarding the physical and physiological responses of players during these games. There may be an assumption within the

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Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular and Uros Marusic

. Eur J Appl Physiol . 2010 ; 109 ( 2 ): 213 – 219 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1333-x 20058021 10.1007/s00421-009-1333-x 24. Carter JEL , ed. Physical structure of Olympic athletes, part I: the Montreal Olympic Games anthropological project . Med Sport Sci . 1982 ; 16 : 107 – 116 . 25. Dihazi