Leslie J. Low, Mary J. Knudsen and Claudine Sherrill
In recent years, the number of individuals with dwarfism participating in sports and physical activities has increased. The Dwarf Athletic Association of America (DAAA) has grown from 30 athletes in 1985 to over 600 in 1994. This paper details the structural, intellectual, motor, orthopedic, and medical characteristics of six types of dwarfism (achondroplasia, hypochon-droplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia, diastrophic dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita) seen in individuals currently participating in eight DAAA-sanctioned sports. Implications and modifications for participation in physical activity, physical education, and sport are included.
Michael W. Churton
Joseph P. Winnick
This presentation traces and reviews past and contemporary concerns, issues, or priorities relating to professional preparation with special emphasis on the identification of people who have had a significant impact upon professional preparation, and the graduates of our programs, who will provide leadership in the future.
Julienne K. Maeda
Dirk Pette and Dejan Škorjanc
We compared responses of the fast extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles in young (15-week) and aging (101-week) male Brown Norwegian rats to 50 days of chronic low-frequency stimulation (CLFS, 10 Hz, 10 hours/day). After 50 days of CLFS, the EDL muscles of the young (22-week) and aging (108-week) rats displayed similar increases in type IIA fibers, relative concentration of myosin heavy chain MHCIIa, elevations in mitochondrial citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, and similar decreases in glycolytic enzyme activities (glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase). TA muscle in young rats contained a few cytochrome c oxidase negative (COX−) type I fibers. Their number was ~2-fold elevated by CLFS. Conversely, aging muscle, which contained a slightly higher amount of COX− fibers than young TA muscle, responded to CLFS with a significant decrease in COX− fibers. The appearance of small COX-positive type I fibers in stimulated aging muscle indicated that regenerating type I fibers “diluted” the COX-deficient fiber population.