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Oliver Faude, Anke Steffen, Michael Kellmann and Tim Meyer


To analyze performance and fatigue effects of small-sided games (SSG) vs high-intensity interval training (HIIT) performed during a 4-wk in-season period in high-level youth football.


Nineteen players from 4 youth teams (16.5 [SD 0.8] y, 1.79 [0.06] m, 70.7 [5.6] kg) of the 2 highest German divisions completed the study. Teams were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 training sequences (2 endurance sessions per wk): One training group started with SSG, whereas the other group conducted HIIT during the first half of the competitive season. After the winter break, training programs were changed between groups. Before and after the training periods the following tests were completed: the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, creatine kinase and urea concentrations, vertical-jump height (countermovement jump [CMJ], drop jump), straight sprint, agility, and an incremental field test to determine individual anaerobic threshold (IAT).


Significant time effects were observed for IAT (+1.3%, ηp 2 = .31), peak heart rate (–1.8%, ηp 2 = .45), and CMJ (–2.3%, ηp 2 = .27), with no significant interaction between groups (P > .30). Players with low baseline IAT values (+4.3%) showed greater improvements than those with high initial values (±0.0%). A significant decrease was found for total recovery (–5.0%, ηp 2 = .29), and an increase was found for urea concentration (+9.2%, ηp 2 = .44).


Four weeks of in-season endurance training can lead to relevant improvements in endurance capacity. The decreases in CMJ height and total-recovery score together with the increase in urea concentration might be interpreted as early signs of fatigue. Thus, the danger of overtaxing players should be considered.

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Jeffrey R. Doeringer, Megan Colas, Corey Peacock and Dustin R. Gatens

cold-water immersion affected an athlete’s postexercise recovery on muscle performance or pain perception. More specifically, looking at muscle performance included flexibility, power, speed, and agility, similar to what is required for completing a sport task. We hypothesized that cold-water immersion

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Zakariya Nawasreh, David Logerstedt, Adam Marmon and Lynn Snyder-Mackler

(<7 mo) between the ages 14 and 55 years were enrolled into this study; 9 of them completed 10 sessions of mechanical perturbation training (mechanical group) using the Reactive Agility System (Simbex LLC, Lebanon, NH). Another 9 patients were matched for age and sex using data from patients who

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John Cairney, Heather Clark, Dean Dudley and Dean Kriellaars

literacy; mot = motor; percomp = perceived competence; enjoy = enjoyment; motiv = motivation; speed = running speed and agility; streng = strength; bal = balance; bicor = bilateral coordination; vmot = visual motor control; ucor = upper limb coordination; uspeed = upper limb speed and agility; res

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Susana Andrade, Angélica Ochoa-Avilés, Wilma Freire, Natalia Romero-Sandoval, Daniel Orellana, Teodoro Contreras, José Luis Pillco, Jessica Sacta, Diana Andrade Muñoz, Patricia Ramírez, Miguel Martin and Silvana Donoso

strength and endurance, agility and flexibility components were evaluated on a nationally representative sample (N = 10257 children 5-17 year). The databases were not accessible, and the available literature do not report physical fitness data stratified by gender. Cardiorespiratory fitness measured by the

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Robyn F. Madden, Kelly A. Erdman, Jane Shearer, Lawrence L. Spriet, Reed Ferber, Ash T. Kolstad, Jessica L. Bigg, Alexander S.D. Gamble and Lauren C. Benson

10 on-ice hockey SP tests, including forward and backward sprints, reaction, weave agility, and transition agility. 17 All tests were timed with and without a puck, and participants were instructed to complete each test as quickly as possible. To elicit maximal effort, players were aware of prizes

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Jaak Jürimäe

). CD and GK were generally taller and heavier (likely small to very likely moderate effects) than other players at each developmental stage and were advanced maturers at U13–U14 (very likely small to likely moderate effects). GK had inferior agility (very likely small to likely moderate effects

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Haley Bookbinder, Lindsay V. Slater, Austin Simpson, Jay Hertel and Joseph M. Hart

with a heart rate (HR) monitor below the pectoralis muscles before completing a 30-minute exercise protocol consisting of 5 rounds of 5 minutes of treadmill exercise and 1 minute of agility. These rounds of treadmill and agility exercise were modeled from a commonly used modified Balke exercise

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Jorge Arede, António Paulo Ferreira, Oliver Gonzalo-Skok and Nuno Leite

Basketball is considered a high-intensity intermittent sport that requires speed, agility, coordination, and explosive efforts. 1 Torres-Unda et al 2 concluded that the previously mentioned physical or fitness parameters were strong discriminators between under-14 male elite and subelite youth

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Yi-Ju Tsai, Chieh-Chie Chia, Pei-Yun Lee, Li-Chuan Lin and Yi-Liang Kuo

included (1) trunk and lower-extremity kinematics during box landing and spike jump landing; (2) volleyball-related sports performance including 10-m shuttle run, agility-T, and vertical jump; and (3) isokinetic strength of the hip and knee muscles. Kinematics were measured using the 6-camera Vicon motion