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-min rest). Perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), affect, and arousal were measured throughout the trials and enjoyment was measured following each trial. Participants rank-ordered the protocols (#1–3) according to preference and logged their exercise over a 4-week follow-up. Despite experiencing

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Agnès Bonnet, Lydia Fernandez, Annie Piolat and Jean-Louis Pedinielli

The notion of risk-taking implies a cognitive process that determines the level of risk involved in a particular activity or task. This risk appraisal process gives rise to emotional responses, including anxious arousal and changes in mood, which may play a significant role in risk-related decision making. This study examines how emotional responses to the perceived risk of a scuba-diving injury contribute to divers’ behavior, as well as the ways that risk taking or non-risk taking behavior, in turn, affects emotional states. The study sample consisted of 131 divers (risk takers and non-risk takers), who either had or had not been in a previous diving accident. Divers’ emotional states were assessed immediately prior to diving, as well as immediately following a dive. Results indicated presence of subjective emotional experiences that are specific to whether a risk has been perceived and whether a risk has been taken. Important differences in emotion regulation were also found between divers who typically take risks and those who do not.

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Amy Gooding and Frank L. Gardner

Seventeen (17) members of three NCAA Division I men’s basketball teams completed measures of mindfulness and sport-related anxiety to examine the relationship between mindfulness, preshot routine, trait arousal, and basketball free throw shooting percentage. It was hypothesized that (a) mindfulness scores would predict game free throw shooting percentage, (b) practice free throw percentage (indicative of basic skill) would predict game free throw percentage, and (c) consistency in the length of prefree throw routine would predict game free throw percentage. Results indicate that levels of mindfulness significantly predict game free throw percentage and that practice free throw percentage also predicts game free throw percentage. Length and/or consistency of preshot routine were not predictive. Although not proposed as a hypothesis, a statistically significant relationship was also found between an athlete’s year in school (which reflects competitive basketball experience) and game free throw percentage. Together, these results clearly suggest that the combination of mindfulness, skill (practice free throw percentage), and competitive experience (year in school) all contribute to the prediction of competitive free throw percentage and that these variables are more central to successful free throw percentage at this level of competition than length/consistency of one’s preshot routine.

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Samuele Joseph and Duncan Cramer

The present study examined elite cricket batsmen’s experiences of sledging to establish its frequency, effects, and the coping strategies used by players. Sledging in cricket is the practice whereby players seek to gain an advantage by insulting or verbally intimidating the opposing batter. Semistructured interviews were conducted on 10 elite batsmen. Interviews were transcribed and content analysis was conducted to elucidate themes. Several similar factors were reported for both the frequency of sledging and its effectiveness, the most influential being the period of innings, state of the game, and in-game pressure. The majority of the reported effects of sledging were negative, most notably, an altered perception of self, an altered state of mind, decreased batting ability, and over arousal. Numerous associated coping strategies were mentioned, the most frequently used being variations of self-talk. Other noteworthy coping strategies included routines, external support, showing frustration, avoidance coping, and relaxation techniques. Overall, players perceived that sledging had a substantial effect on a batter and their level of performance.

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Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson and Paul Davis

traditionally in the sport psychology literature has been regarded as an unpleasant emotion comprised of cognitive (worry) and somatic (arousal) components ( Davidson & Schwartz, 1976 ; Lazarus, 1991 ; Woodman & Hardy, 2001 ). Worry in competitive situations generally revolves around self-doubt relating to

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Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower

arousal) across different tasks, levels, and stages of development in the context of youth sport. Self-Talk A number of studies have explored the impact of self-talk interventions on young athletes’ performance (e.g.,  Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2008 , 2009 ; Hatzigeorgiadis, Galanis, Zourbanos

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Melissa G. Hunt, James Rushton, Elyse Shenberger and Sarah Murayama

positive effects on physiological indices of autonomic arousal, including lowering heart rate and blood pressure ( Jerath, Edry, Barnes, & Jerath, 2006 ) and increasing HRV ( Prinsloo, Derman, Lambert, & Rauch, 2013 ). It has also proved useful to the general college student population for reducing testing

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Leilani A. Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur Maerlender and Debra Hope

In order to optimize performance, athletes must seek the key balance between arousal and performance such that arousal is sufficient to sharpen attention but not so excessive to be distracting from the task at hand. This is the classic Yerkes-Dobson curve in psychology, adapted in performance by

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Jessica Ross and Peter D. MacIntyre

emotional responses ( Cole et al., 1994 ; Gratz & Roemer, 2004 ), which can be associated with an increase in physiological arousal ( Gross & Levenson, 1997 ; Notarius & Levenson, 1979 ). This arousal that occurs from (often failed) attempts to completely control emotional responses increases the risk for

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Emily Kroshus

intimate behaviors related to sexual assault and had four items (e.g., “stop sexual activity when asked to, even if I am already sexually aroused”). A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the four items all loaded strongly onto a single latent construct (Eigenvalue = 1.49, factor loadings ≥0