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N. Füsun Toraman, Alparslan Erman and Evren Agyar

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 9-week supervised multicomponent exercise program on functional fitness and body composition in independent older adults. Forty-two adults age 60–86 years were randomly assigned to an exercise or a control group and were evaluated before and after training. The training program consisted of 3 sessions of walking, strengthening, and flexibility exercises per week. The multicomponent training program resulted in significant (p < .005) improvements on the chair stand, arm curl, 6-min walk, and up-and-go tests. The findings of this study indicate that a 9-week training program increased upper and lower body strength, aerobic endurance, and agility/dynamic balance in older adults. The most affected components of functional fitness were lower body strength and aerobic endurance. There was no effect of the 9-week training on body composition.

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Darryn S. Willoughby, Colin Wilborn, Lemuel Taylor and William Campbell

This study examined the effects of an aromatase-inhibiting nutritional supplement on serum steroid hormones, body composition, and clinical safety markers. Sixteen eugonadal young men ingested either Novedex XT™ or a placebo daily for 8 wk, followed by a 3-wk washout period. Body composition was assessed and blood and urine samples obtained at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 11. Data were analyzed by 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Novedex XT resulted in average increases of 283%, 625%, 566%, and 438% for total testosterone (P = 0.001), free testosterone (P = 0.001), dihydrotestosterone (P = 0.001), and the testosterone:estrogen ratio (P = 0.001), respectively, whereas fat mass decreased 3.5% (P = 0.026) during supplementation. No significant differences were observed in blood and urinary clinical safety markers or for any of the other serum hormones (P > 0.05). This study indicates that Novedex XT significantly increases serum androgen levels and decreases fat mass.

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André X. Bigard, Pierre Lavier, Lionel Ullmann, Hélène Legrand, Philippe Douce and Charles Y. Guezennec

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation would minimize changes in body composition and alterations in plasma amino acid profile induced by prolonged exercises at altitude. Twenty-four highly trained subjects participated in six successive sessions of ski mountaineering (6-8 hr duration, altitude 2,500-4,100 m). Twelve subjects took a dietary supplement of BCAA (BCAA group) and 12 took a dietary supplement that was 98% carbohydrate (C group). Body weight decreased in C subjects (-2.1%,p < .01), while the body weight loss recorded in the BCAA group was not statistically significant (-1.2%, NS). Changes in body composition that resulted from repeated skiing exercise at altitude were not significantly minimized by BCAA administration. Peak power output recorded during an incremental bicycle exercise decreased in C subjects but did not change significantly in BCAA subjects. Results of this study demonstrate that neither changes in body composition related to the ski mountaineering program nor muscular performance during isometric contraction was significantly affected by BCAA administration.

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Annie Fex, Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet, Marie-Eve Filion, Antony D. Karelis and Mylène Aubertin-Leheudre

Objectives:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of elliptical high intensity interval training (HIIT) on metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.

Methods:

Sixteen pre- (n = 8) and type 2 diabetes (n = 8) participants completed this study. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, anthropometric measurements, body composition (DXA), blood pressure, resting heart rate, VO2max, and dietary factors, as well as total and physical activity energy expenditure, were measured. The HIIT program on the elliptical was performed 3 times a week for 12 weeks.

Results:

After the intervention, we observed a significant improvement for fasting blood glucose, waist and hip circumference, appendicular fat mass, leg lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, and VO2max (P < .05). In addition, we noted a lower tendency for leg fat mass (P = .06) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .05) as well as a higher tendency for total energy expenditure (P = .06) after the intervention.

Conclusions:

The current study indicates that elliptical HIIT seems to improve metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.

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Helen T. Douda, Konstantina V. Kosmidou, Ilias Smilios, Konstantinos A. Volaklis and Savvas P. Tokmakidis

This five-year follow-up nonrandomized controlled study evaluated community-based training and detraining on body composition and functional ability in older women. Forty-two volunteers (64.3 ± 5.1 years) were divided into four groups: aerobic training, strength training, combined aerobic and strength, and control. Body composition and physical fitness were measured at baseline, after nine months of training and after three months of detraining every year. After five years of training, body fat decreased, and fat free mass, strength, and chair test performance increased (p < .05) in all training groups. Training-induced favorable adaptations were reversed during detraining but, eventually, training groups presented better values than the control group even after detraining. Thus, nine months of annual training, during a five-year period, induced favorable adaptations on body composition, muscular strength, and functional ability in older women. Three months of detraining, however, changed the favorable adaptations and underlined the need for uninterrupted exercise throughout life.

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Robert Gorinski and Wendy Stuhldreher

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Jennifer Gornall and Rudolph G. Villani

The primary aim was to investigate whether the reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and fat free mass (FFM) associated with a short-term very low kilojoule diet (VLKD) is altered by concurrent resistance exercise. Twenty overweight, premenopausal women were pair matched on body surface area and randomly assigned to either diet only (3,400 kJ/day) or diet combined with resistance training. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, RMR was assessed by indirect calorimetry; total body mass (TBM), FFM, and fat mass (FM) by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; total body water (TBW) by bioelectrical impedance; and strength by a weight-lifting test. Both groups had significantly lower TBM, FFM, FM, TBW, absolute RMR, and RMR, with FFM as the covariate, in the posttests than the pretests with no significant differences between groups. It was concluded that 4 weeks of resistance training did not prevent or reduce the decline in FFM and RMR observed with a VLKD.

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Peter Pagels, Anders Raustorp, Trevor Archer, Ulf Lidman and Marie Alricsson

Background:

Health organizations suggest that adults ought to engage in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity daily physical activity. This study investigated the effects of a 30-minute single daily bout of brisk walking upon risk factors for coronary heart disease with blood lipid profile in particular.

Methods:

Thirty-three (25–45 y) adults, were randomly assigned into an exercise group (EG; n = 16, 9w) and a control group (CG; n = 17, 6w). The EG walked briskly 30 minutes daily during the 3-week test period. Compliance/adherence was maximal throughout the 3-week intervention due to stringent daily monitoring.

Results:

The EG showed a significant decrease in concentrations of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC) during the intervention period. A significant inverse correlation between Δ energy expenditure/day and Δ LDL-C (r = –0.39, P < .05) and an improvement in weight and BMI in the EG was found. Average steps during 30 minutes brisk walking bout was 3669 steps/bout generating a mean energy expenditure of 191 kcal/ bout.

Conclusions:

The most unique findings were that daily single bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity for 30 minutes, during 3 weeks, induced favorable effects upon body weight, BMI, and blood concentration of LDL-C and TC in healthy adults.

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Stuart J. Fairclough

This study assessed the physical activity levels of 20 high school girls (age 13 years, SD = 1.1) during physical education classes, over an 8-month period. Physical activity was measured by heart rate telemetry and accelerometry. Skinfold measurements were used to estimate percent body fat, and peak VO2 was assessed by maximal treadmill running. Girls engaged in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) for 38.5% of class time and produced 961.8 vector magnitude (Vmag) counts · min−1. Body fat was inversely correlated with Vmag counts · min−1 (r = −.65, p < .01) and peak VO2 (r = −.65, p < .01). Girls’ MVPA in physical education did not meet the Healthy People 2010 50% of class time criterion. Body fat significantly predicted 42% of the variance in Vmag counts · min−1. Cardiorespiratory fitness appeared not to influence physical activity during physical education, regardless of measurement method. Girls’ physical activity in physical education may be improved if schools advocate planned lesson outcomes that aim to maximize opportunities for physical activity.