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Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin

-time trajectory classes, and (3) to examine gender differences in such associations with taking into account age, education, body mass index (BMI), and smoking. Methods Participants The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is an ongoing longitudinal population-based study consisting of 6 cohorts born in 1962

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Paulo Felipe Ribeiro Bandeira, Michael Duncan, Maria Luiza Pessoa, Ívina Soares, Larissa da Silva, Jorge Mota and Clarice Martins

TGMD-2 for a low-income sample of preschool children; and investigate the possible associations between the final model proposed with sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Methods Study Description Data were collected as part of three different projects with low-income children and adolescents. The

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Dori E. Rosenberg, Melissa L. Anderson, Anne Renz, Theresa E. Matson, Amy K. Lee, Mikael Anne Greenwood-Hickman, David E. Arterburn, Paul A. Gardiner, Jacqueline Kerr and Jennifer B. McClure

Washington. Individuals were deemed potentially eligible if they received primary care at a clinic within King County, Washington, were aged 60–89 years, their body mass index (BMI) was ≥30 kg/m 2 , and their enrollment in the health plan was continuous for 12 months prior to the data extraction date

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Joey C. Eisenmann, R. Todd Bartee and Krystal D. Damori

Purpose:

The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence of participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overweight and obesity, and (b) to examine the associations between physical activity and weight status in a sample of university students from a rural university.

Methods:

Data from a representative sample of 773 (361 women, 412 men) students participating in the National College Health Assessment Survey were examined. MVPA and height and body mass were self-reported. The body-mass index (BMI) was derived and used to classify subjects as normal, overweight, or obese.

Results:

Approximately 20% of students were inactive (0 d/wk), and 23% met the recommended amount of MVPA (≥5 d/wk). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was, respectively, 35.7% and 8.5% in men and, respectively, 15.6% and 8.2% in women. Analysis of variance revealed the mean BMI was not significantly different across levels of MVPA. Odds ratios showed higher levels of MVPA were significantly associated with lower risk of obesity in men but not women.

Conclusion:

A large percentage of subjects are inactive or insufficiently active, and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity is significantly related to risk of obesity in men. Future studies should measure habitual physical activity or energy expenditure and body composition. Additional factors affecting obesity, such as television viewing and other sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, and heritability, should also be considered.

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Darolyn J. Walker, Andrea MacIntosh, Anita Kozyrskyj, Allan Becker and Jon McGavock

Background:

The primary aim of this population-based study was to determine if arterial stiffness is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering and physical activity in youth 12−14 years old. We hypothesized that arterial stiffness would be positively associated with CVD risk factor clustering and negatively associated with physical activity in a dose-response manner in this cohort of youth.

Methods:

This was a cross sectional study of 485 youth recruited from the 1995 Manitoba birth cohort. The primary outcome, arterial stiffness, was assessed noninvasively using conventional pulse wave analysis and velocity. The primary exposure variables included 1) a measure of cardiometabolic risk, defined as a composite of novel and traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and 2) self-reported physical activity.

Results:

Neither cardiometabolic risk factor clustering, nor physical activity were associated with either measure of arterial stiffness in this cohort of youth 12−14 years. Cardiometabolic risk decreased with increasing levels of vigorous physical activity, (P < .05) and increased with increasing body mass index.

Conclusions:

Cardiometabolic risk factor clustering and physical activity are not associated with arterial stiffness in youth 12−14 years of age. Increased vigorous physical activity is associated with reduced cardiometabolic risk in youth independent of body mass index.

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Anne Marie Z. Jukic, Kelly R. Evenson, Amy H. Herring, Allen J. Wilcox, Katherine E. Hartmann and Julie L. Daniels

Background:

Correlates of prenatal physical activity can inform interventions, but are not well-understood.

Methods:

Participants in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition 3 Study were recruited before 20 weeks gestation. Women self-reported frequency, duration, and mode of moderate and vigorous physical activities. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any physical activity (≥10 minutes/week of any mode), any recreational activity (≥10 minutes/week), and high volume recreational activity (either ≥150 minutes/week of moderate or ≥75 minutes/week of vigorous). Our analysis included 1752 women at 19-weeks gestation and 1722 at 29 weeks.

Results:

Higher education, white race, and enjoyment of physical activity were positively correlated with all 3 outcomes. Any recreational activity was negatively associated with parity, body mass index, and history of miscarriage. The associations of history of miscarriage and body mass index differed at 19 weeks compared with 29 weeks. Single marital status, health professional physical activity advice, and time for activity were associated with high volume recreational activity only.

Conclusions:

Correlates of physical activity differed by mode and volume of activity and by gestational age. This suggests that researchers planning physical activity interventions should consider the mode and amount of activity and the gestational age of the participants.

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Matthew T. Mahar, Gregory J. Welk, David A. Rowe, Dana J. Crotts and Kerry L. McIver

Background:

The purpose of this study was to develop and cross-validate a regression model to estimate VO2peak from PACER performance in 12- to 14-year-old males and females.

Methods:

A sample of 135 participants had VO2peak measured during a maximal treadmill test and completed the PACER 20-m shuttle run. The sample was randomly split into validation (n = 90) and cross-validation (n = 45) samples. The validation sample was used to develop the regression equation to estimate VO2peak from PACER laps, gender, and body mass.

Results:

The multiple correlation (R) was .66 and standard error of estimate (SEE) was 6.38 ml·kg−1·min−1. Accuracy of the model was confirmed on the cross-validation sample. The regression equation developed on the total sample was: VO2peak = 47.438 + (PACER*0.142) + (Gender[m=1, f=0]*5.134) − (body mass [kg]*0.197), R = .65, SEE = 6.38 ml·kg–1·min–1.

Conclusions:

The model developed in this study was more accurate than the Leger et al. model and allows easy conversion of PACER laps to VO2peak.

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Juliana Pereira Borges, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Paulo Farinatti, Marina Pereira Coelho, Pablo Marino Correa Nascimento, Gabriella de Oliveira Lopes, Daniel Arkader Kopiler and Eduardo Tibiriçá

Background:

It remains unclear whether self-regulated exercise is sufficient to maintain the benefits acquired during formal cardiac rehabilitation (CR). This retrospective observational study investigated the effects of a home-based exercise intervention after discharge from CR upon anthropometric and aerobic capacity markers in clinically stable patients.

Methods:

Fifty patients with cardiovascular disease were discharged after 6 months of CR and encouraged to maintain aerobic exercise without supervision. Subsequent to 6 months of follow-up, patients were assigned to compliant (n = 34) or noncompliant (n = 16) groups according to their compliance to the home-based program. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and anthropometric data were assessed before CR, at discharge, and after 6 months of follow-up.

Results:

No statistical differences between compliant and noncompliant groups were observed at baseline and at discharge from CR. At the end of the follow-up, statistical differences across groups were not found for body mass or body mass index, but increases in VO2peak (+3.6 vs. –0.6 ml/kg·min, P = 0.004) and oxygen pulse (+1.5 vs. +0.2 ml/bpm, P = .03) were greater in compliant than noncompliant group.

Conclusions:

Self-regulated exercising following CR discharge seems to be effective to maintain gains in exercise capacity acquired during supervised center-based programs.

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Heather M. Hayes, Joey C. Eisenmann, Karin Pfeiffer and Joseph J. Carlson

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and joint association of weight status and physical activity on resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein in children.

Methods:

Participants were 174 (71 males, 103 females) children (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.4 yrs). Physical activity was self-reported, body mass index was calculated from measured height and body mass, and blood pressure was measured according to standard procedures. A subset of 91 children had C-reactive protein measured by fingerstick blood sample. Four weight/physical activity groups were created by cross tabulation of weight status classification and physical activity level.

Results:

The prevalence of low physical activity (< 5 days/wk moderate-vigorous activity) did not differ between overweight and normal weight children (50%). Physical activity was not correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.01; P = 0.91) and C-reactive protein was not significantly different between physical activity groups (P = 0.87). Physical activity did not modify the difference in blood pressure or C-reactive protein within weight categories.

Conclusions:

Fatness (specifically overweight and obesity), but not physical activity, was shown to be associated with blood pressure and C-reactive protein levels in children. Physical activity did not attenuate blood pressure or C-reactive protein in overweight and obese children.

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Agnieszka Kaczmarek, Alicja Nowak and Piotr Leszczynski

Background:

An increased occurrence of lifestyle-related diseases such as osteoporosis indicates the necessity for taking preventive action, including regularly engaging in physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone turnover markers levels in young adult women engaging in recreational horseback riding and to determine the relationship between training characteristics and bone metabolism indices.

Methods:

The study involved 43 women: 23 equestrians and 20 age- and body mass index–matched controls. The hip and spine aBMD and serum levels of the bone turnover markers: osteocalcin and collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide were measured.

Results:

No significant differences were found in somatic features, concentrations of bone turnover markers, or bone mass variables. Correlation analysis of the equestrian participants showed significant relationship between body mass and BMDL1–L4 (P < .05) as well as between BMI and BMDL1–L4 (P ≤ .01) and z-score L1–L4 (P < .05).

Conclusions:

The study showed no differences in bone mass and levels of bone metabolic indices between groups of women practicing horseback riding at the recreational level and subjects who do not participate in frequent systematic physical activity. No relationship between training characteristics and bone turnover markers were found.