significance for people” ( Smith et al., 2009 , p. 13). The study was also framed as an instrumental or particularistic case study ( Stake, 2006 ; Yin, 2014 ). The context of the study was an after-school physical activity and exercise transition program for disabled children from separate (disability only
Donna L. Goodwin and Amanda Ebert
Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton and Ben Jones
interventions to be successful within the challenging environment of professional sport ( Coutts 2016 ; Jones et al., 2017a ). The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate how the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW; Michie et al., 2014 ) was used to design and implement a successful nutritional intervention
In the article by Pedlar CR, Whyte GP, Burden R, et al, “A Case Study of an Iron-Deficient Female Olympic 1500-m Runner,” in Int J Sport Physiol Perform. 8(6), p. 696, we printed an incorrect version of Figure 1, without the ×’s and +’s referred to in the caption. Please see below for the correct version of the figure, along with the caption.
Marie Dunford and Charlotte Saunders
The determination of blood glucose response to various carbohydrate foods may help athletes in their choice of preexercise feedings. This case study documented the postprandial glycemic responses of three male endurance athletes at rest after ingestion of 50-gram portions of three carbohydrate foods: graham crackers, orange juice, and oatmeal. Plasma glucose response differed in each subject for each test food. Two of the three subjects exhibited similar glycemic responses, but not to the same test food. Future studies will clarify the relationship between carbohydrate ingestion and postprandial glucose response.
Thomas D. Brown
Numerical approximation of the solutions to continuum mechanics boundary value problems, by means of finite element analysis, has proven to be of incalculable benefit to the field of musculoskeletal biomechanics. This article briefly outlines the conceptual basis of finite element analysis and discusses a number of the key technical considerations involved, specifically from the standpoint of effective modeling of musculoskeletal structures. The process of conceiving, developing, validating, parametrically exercising, and interpreting the results of musculoskeletal finite element models is described. Pertinent case study examples are presented from two series of finite element models, one involving total hip implant dislocation and the other involving femoral head osteonecrosis.
Siobhan T. Moran, Christine E. Dziedzic and Gregory R. Cox
The aim of this case study was to describe the race nutrition practices of a female runner who completed her first 100-km off-road ultraendurance running event in 12 hr 48 min 55 s. Food and fluid intake during the race provided 10,890 kJ (736 kJ/hr) and 6,150 ml (415 ml/hr) of fluid. Hourly reported carbohydrate intake was 44 g, with 34% provided by sports drink. Hourly carbohydrate intake increased in the second half (53 g/hr) compared with the first half (34 g/h) of the race, as the athlete did not have access to individualized food and fluid choices at the early checkpoints and felt satiated in the early stages of the race after consuming a prerace breakfast. Mean sodium intake was 500 mg/hr (52 mmol/L), with a homemade savory broth and sports drink (Gatorade Endurance) being the major contributors. The athlete consumed a variety of foods of varying textures and tastes with no complaints of gastrointestinal discomfort. Despite thinking she would consume sweet foods exclusively, as she had done in training, the athlete preferred savory foods and fluids at checkpoints during the latter stages of the race. This case study highlights the importance of the sports nutrition team in educating athletes about race-day nutrition strategies and devising a simple yet effective system to allow them to manipulate their race-day food and fluid intake to meet their nutritional goals.
Kevin Thompson, Stephen Garland and Fiona Lothian
Thompson and Cooper1 observed that improvements in the swimming speed at 2-mM and 6-mM lactate concentration coincided with improvements in competitive breaststroke performances, whereas Pyne et al2 concluded that changes in swimming speed at lactate threshold were not directly associated with competition performances in a mixed-stroke group of 12 elite swimmers. This case study presents data from eleven (7 × 200 m) step tests over a 3-year period for a world-class 200-m male breaststroke swimmer. Personal-best race times were reduced by 9.5 seconds over this period. For this individual, step-test data provided valuable information with regard to the swimmer’s readiness for performance, health and training status, and nutritional habits.
Kevin G. Thompson and Stephen W. Garland
Competitive swimmers routinely undertake a 7 X 200-m incremental step test to evaluate their fitness and readiness to compete.1 An exercise protocol more closely replicating competition swimming speeds may provide further insight into the swimmer’s physiological and technical readiness for competition. This case study reports data over a 3-year period from 11 Race Readiness Tests, which were completed, in addition to the 7 X 200-m test, as an attempt to provide the swimmer and coach with a fuller assessment. For this individual, data provided objective information from which to assess training status and race readiness following a transition from 200-m to 100-m race training. Data also raised a question as to whether a 100-m maximal effort 10 minutes before another one actually enhances performance owing to a priming effect.
Jessica Brooke Kirby and Mary Ann Kluge
Older adults are often viewed by society more for what they cannot do than for what they are capable of achieving. This intrinsic case study examined the formation of a women’s 65+ volleyball team at a university for the purpose of better understanding what it was like for older women to learn a new sport and what meaning participating in competitive sport had for those who had not previously been considered athletic. Qualitative methods explored each participant’s experiences through a focus group, individual interviews, observational notes, and written reflections. Resulting team member themes included going for the gusto, belonging to a team, and support from the university. This program is a potential model to engage nonathletic older adults in sport, while forging a new and positive aging framework for aging athletes.
Guy Faulkner and Stuart J.H. Biddle
Research continues to support the consideration of exercise as an adjunctive treatment for depression. Adopting a qualitative approach, the aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the motives and barriers to exercise faced by this clinical population, and to explore the role of physical activity in promoting psychological well-being, in a way that encompasses the variability and contextuality of the lives of individuals. Marking a departure from standard content analyses reported in the literature, instrumental case studies are developed that offer a different format for representing qualitative data. Given its longitudinal nature, this study demonstrates the fundamental importance of considering the wider context of participants’ lives in order to understand the relationship between physical activity and psychological well-being. This association is likely to be complex and highly idiosyncratic. Such an understanding may inform a more critical insight into the potential of exercise as an antidepressant in terms of process and effectiveness.