The purpose of the current investigation was to examine friendship quality with a best friend in youth disability sport with an international sample of moderately experienced athletes with disabilities ages 9 to 18 years. Participants were 85 males and 65 females from four countries who competed in track and field and swimming. Data were collected with the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (Weiss & Smith, 1999). An exploratory factor analyses indicated that participants viewed their friendship quality with a best friend in disability sport as having both positive and negative dimensions. The latter focused exclusively on conflict experiences. Females reported stronger perceptions of the benefits of their friendships than males did; whereas no gender differences occurred in perceptions of the negative aspects to friendships. Item analyses indicated that females scored higher than males on questions reflecting loyalty, providing intimacy, self-esteem, supportiveness, having things in common, and playing together.
Jeffrey J. Martin and Kerry Smith
This 2-part longitudinal study uses quantitative content analysis of newspapers to investigate gender dynamics in producing news on equality in sports. It analyzes differences in Title IX coverage by reporter gender to determine whether female journalists advocated more aggressively for women’s equality than their male counterparts did. The study’s first part uses content analysis of volume and placement of articles about Title IX, by journalist gender, and discusses the implications of how patterns of volume and placement have changed over time. The second part identifies advocacy and opposition frames used in the conflict over Title IX; applies content analysis of frames used, by journalist gender; and discusses implications of reporting differences and changes over time for equality. Evidence suggests that, first, social control; then a feminist perspective; and, most recently, a postfeminist worldview among female journalists influenced coverage of the law.
Maureen R. Weiss and Becky L. Sisley
The present study examined the problem of coaching attrition in youth sports by asking former coaches why they quit. Also, dropout and current coaches were compared on demographic characteristics, coaching orientations, self-ratings of coaching abilities, and attitudes toward program policies. Current (n = 159) and dropout (n = 97) coaches associated with a youth sports agency responded to a background questionnaire and a coaching orientations and preferred outcomes questionnaire. Dropout coaches also completed a questionnaire to assess the reasons why they quite coaching. Multiple reasons were cited: time involvement, conflicts with job, child no longer participating, loss of motivation, problems with unqualified officiating, and dissatisfaction with program philosophy. Current and dropout coaches were similar on demographic characteristics and coaching orientations but differed on preferred coaching outcomes. Recommendations for retaining youth coaches, and thus coaching continuity for the kids, included enhancing the quality of officiating, providing coaching clinics, and soliciting input from coaches and parents regarding program philosophy and policies.
Ellen Macro, Jennifer Viveiros and Nick Cipriano
This study explores female freestyle wrestlers’ experiences related to identity, body consciousness, (hetero)sexuality, and (conventional) femininity, and also the perceptions of females participating in a traditionally male-dominated sport. Data was collected from questionnaires distributed to 47 high school, university, and club female wrestlers and from in-depth interviews with eight university wrestlers. Based on the findings, the researchers suggest that female wrestlers are comfortable with their body; that public perception concerning their sexuality and femininity is not an issue of concern for them; and that they do not experience gender-role conflict nor engage in the female apologetic. The results are of particular interest because they differ from what other studies have concluded regarding the experiences of women in(traditionally male-dominated sports.
Brenda Jo Light Bredemeier
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between children's moral reasoning and their assertive, aggressive, and submissive action tendencies in sport and daily life contexts. The 106 fourth- through seventh-grade children were asked to reason about hypothetical sport and daily life moral dilemmas and to respond to two behaviorally validated, self-report instruments designed to assess action tendencies in sport and daily life conflict situations. Multiple regression analyses indicated that moral reasoning scores were predictive of action tendencies, with reasoning positively related to assertion and negatively related to aggression. Results were interpreted in light of a congruence between Haan's (1978) descriptions of moral levels and the moral implications of the action tendencies under consideration. Gender and school-level differences in action tendencies were also noted; no gender or school-level differences in moral reasoning were found.
Charles R. Thompson
The incidence of concussions and potential for long-term health effects has captured the attention of the media, general public, medical professionals, parents, and obviously the athletes themselves. Concussions have been blamed for a variety of mental and physical health issues. The athletic trainer is at the forefront of the concussion management team, as they are typically on the scene when the concussion occurs and are often the first medical personnel to evaluate and, hopefully, remove the athlete from activity. There has been controversy of late regarding the influence of coaches in the care of concussed athletes. Therefore, a move to the “medical model” of sports medicine management can go a long way in resolving conflict of interest issues regarding the care of concussed athletes. A comprehensive concussion team and protocol are also essential to providing the highest level of care. This article takes a closer look at concussion management in the collegiate arena, with a particular focus on Princeton University.
Donetta J. Cothran and Catherine D. Ennis
Teachers’ educational values appear to influence their decision-making, but they are not the only decision-makers in the classroom. Students are also actively deciding on courses of action, yet educators know very little about students’ values or the interaction of teacher and student values. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of congruence between students’ and teachers’ values, and between their values and the curriculum. A multiphase research design involving observations, interviews, and Q methodology examined the educational values of 4 urban high school teachers and their students. Observation and interview data were analyzed via constant comparison. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the Q-sort data. Results indicated that teachers and students held potentially conflicting values about the educational and noneducational aspects of physical education, the role and value of social aspects, and the role of fun. Additionally, there was incongruence between participants’ values and the curricular model.
High school physical education programs in South Carolina have undergone a major reform effort which was implemented through extensive staff development called the Physical Education Institute (PEI). How to teach toward student performance indicators became the focus of the in-services. This study identified factors that facilitated or hindered implementing the performance indicators, and examined the extent to which key players from three selected programs of secondary physical education were able to achieve the goals of the reform effort. Data were collected through interviews, document analysis, and videotaping lessons. Results reveal that “lead teachers” facilitated the extent to which programs met the goals of reform. The teaching/coaching role conflict was a main hindrance. Each school and teacher met each of the student performance indicators to varying degrees. Implications include the need for a shared reform, holding teachers and students accountable, and the need for administrators and university faculty to be involved.
Karen E. Danylchuk
The prevalence of occupational Stressors in physical education faculties/ departments as a function of sex, age, marital status, family status, years of work experience in higher education, and type of appointment was examined through use of the Stress Diagnostic Survey (Ivancevich & Matteson, 1988a). This multidimensional self-report inventory consists of 17 dimensions, which are further subdivided into organizational Stressors (macrostressors) and individual Stressors (microstressors). The sample reported moderate degrees of stress in comparison to the normative data with the macrostressors being greater sources of stress than the microstressors. Quantitative overload was rated the highest followed by time pressure and rewards. Qualitative overload was rated lowest followed by role ambiguity and role conflict. Sex was associated with the greatest number of Stressors—gender discrimination, quantitative overload, and time pressure. Females perceived these three Stressors to be significantly greater sources of stress than did males.
Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville, Jean F. Fournier and Alice Dubois
Coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions regarding their effective interactions and the underlying factors and reasons for effectiveness of these interactions were examined. An in-depth interview process was conducted with three expert judo coaches and six elite athletes. Qualitative data analyses revealed that the interaction style of the coaches was authoritative and was put into operation using the following six strategies: stimulating interpersonal rivalry, provoking athletes verbally, displaying indifference, entering into direct conflict, developing specific team cohesion, and showing preferences. Perceived autonomy, the main interaction style of athletes, was expressed by the following five strategies: showing diplomacy, achieving exceptional performance, soliciting coaches directly, diversifying information sources, and bypassing conventional rules. Results demonstrated the compatibility of particular interactions between coaches’ and athletes’ strategies. Theoretical models from industrial/organizational psychology are used to interpret these results, which differ from conventional findings in the sport psychology literature.