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Craig A. Wrisberg and Richard L. Pein

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between preperformance behavior and performance accuracy within the context of a competitive sporting event. Data were collected during varsity and intramural basketball games at a NCAA Division I university. The measures included length of the preshot interval and the number of free throws attempted and made by each player. From these data, the mean and within-subject standard deviation of preshot interval scores and free throw percentages were derived, and pairwise correlations among the measures were calculated. One-way MANOVA tests were performed to determine whether selected individual-difference and situational variables significantly influenced any of the measures. Of primary importance was the finding of a significant negative correlation between standard deviation of preshot interval and free throw percentage, indicating that higher percentage shooters maintained a higher level of temporal consistency in executing their preshot routines than did lower percentage shooters. Implications for the use of preshot interval data in research and intervention by sport psychology consultants are discussed.

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Philip J. Troped, Heather A. Whitcomb, Brent Hutto, Julian A. Reed and Steven P. Hooker

Purpose:

This study assessed test-retest reliability of an interviewer-administered trail survey.

Methods:

An intercept survey was conducted with adults using 2 paved trails in Indiana and South Carolina (N = 295; mean age = 46.9 ± 18 y). The survey included items on frequency and duration of trail use for recreation and transportation, other patterns of trail use, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fifty-five adults completed the survey twice (2−16 d apart; mean = 7.4 ± 2.6 d). Test-retest reliability was assessed with Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Kappa coefficients, and percent agreement.

Results:

Kappa coefficients and percent agreement for 9 categorical items ranged from 0.65 to 0.96 and from 64.0% to 98.2%, respectively. Among these items, the lowest Kappas were found for perceived safety (0.65) and reported duration of visits for recreational purposes (0.67). Spearman rank correlation coefficients for travel distance to and on the trail and frequency of trail use during the past 7 days and past 4 weeks ranged from 0.62 to 0.93.

Conclusion:

Though further assessments of this survey with different populations and types of trails may be warranted, its overall high reliability indicates it can be used by researchers and practitioners in its current form.

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Bethany Barone Gibbs, Wendy C. King, Kelliann K. Davis, Amy D. Rickman, Renee J. Rogers, Abdus Wahed, Steven H. Belle and John Jakicic

Background:

Sedentary behavior (SED) has been measured almost exclusively by self-reported total SED or television time in longitudinal studies. This manuscript aimed to compare self-reported vs. objectively measured SED.

Methods:

Among overweight and obese young adults enrolled in a weight loss trial, baseline SED was assessed by 3 methods: 1) a questionnaire assessing 8 common SEDs (SEDQ), 2) 1 question assessing SED from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (SEDGPAQ), and 3) a monitor worn on the arm (SEDOBJ). In addition, television time (SEDTV) was isolated from the SEDQ. SED measures were compared using Spearman’s correlations, signed-rank tests, and Bland-Altman plots.

Results:

In 448 participants, SEDQ and SEDGPAQ were only weakly associated with SEDOBJ (rs = 0.21; P < .001, rs = 0.32; P < .001, respectively). Compared with SEDOBJ, SEDQ more often overestimated SEDOBJ (median difference: 1.1 hours/day; P < .001), while SEDGPAQ more often underestimated SEDOBJ (median difference: –0.7 hours/day; P < .001). The correlation between SEDTV and SEDOBJ was not significantly different from 0 (rs = 0.08; P = .08).

Conclusions:

SEDQ and SEDGPAQ were weakly correlated with, and significantly different from, SEDOBJ in overweight and obese young adults. SEDTV was not related to SEDOBJ. The poor associations of self-reported and objectively measured SED could affect interpretation and comparison across studies relating SED to adverse health outcomes.

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Yuko Oguma, Yusuke Osawa, Michiyo Takayama, Yukiko Abe, Shigeho Tanaka, I-Min Lee and Yasumichi Arai

Background:

To date, there is no physical activity (PA) questionnaire with convergent and construct validity for the oldest-old. The aim of the current study was to investigate the validity of questionnaire-assessed PA in comparison with objective measures determined by uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers and physical performance measures in the oldest-old.

Methods:

Participants were 155 elderly (mean age 90 years) who were examined at the university and agreed to wear an accelerometer for 7 days in the 3-year-follow-up survey of the Tokyo Oldest-Old Survey of Total Health. Fifty-nine participants wore a uniaxial and triaxial accelerometer simultaneously. Self-rated walking, exercise, and household PA were measured using a modified Zutphen PA Questionnaire (PAQ). Several physical performance tests were done, and the associations among PAQ, accelerometer-assessed PA, and physical performances were compared by Spearman’s correlation coefficients.

Results:

Significant, low to moderate correlations between PA measures were seen on questionnaire and accelerometer assessments (ρ = 0.19 to 0.34). Questionnaireassessed PA measure were correlated with a range of lower extremity performance (ρ = 0.21 to 0.29).

Conclusions:

This PAQ demonstrated convergent and construct validity. Our findings suggest that the PAQ can reasonably be used in this oldest-old population to rank their PA level.

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Kathy Ruble, Susan Scarvalone, Lisa Gallicchio, Catherine Davis and Diane Wells

Background:

: Inadequate physical activity (PA) in childhood cancer survivors may lead to compromised health outcomes. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and effect of a PA intervention in childhood cancer survivors ages 8–12 who report < 1 hour of moderate-to-vigorous physical (MVPA) per day.

Methods:

Twenty survivors were randomized to a 6-month group PA intervention or to a control group. A pre/post measure of MVPA was completed by all participants, and a pre/post measure of self-efficacy was completed by the intervention group. Analysis included measures of feasibility, change in percentage of awake time spent in MVPA, self-efficacy scores, and correlations in MVPA and self-efficacy.

Results:

All feasibility parameters were confirmed. Increases in percent of awake time spent in MVPA were seen in 67% of the intervention group and 14% of the control group. A medium effect size (r = 0.55) was calculated for the correlation between change in MVPA and change in total self-efficacy scores; the largest effect size (r = 0.62) was found for the subscale for adequacy.

Conclusions:

Increases in MVPA can be seen in childhood cancer survivors who participate in a group intervention that includes support of self-efficacy.

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James F. Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan A. Carlson, Gregory J. Norman, Brian E. Saelens, Nefertiti Durant and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

Neighborhood environment attributes of walkability and access to recreation facilities have been related to physical activity and weight status, but most self-report environment measures are lengthy. The 17-item PANES (Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale) was developed to be comprehensive but brief enough for use in multipurpose surveys. The current study evaluated test-retest and alternate-form reliability of PANES items compared with multi-item subscales from the longer NEWS-A (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated).

Methods:

Participants were 291 adults recruited from neighborhoods that varied in walkability in 3 US cities. Surveys were completed twice with a 27-day interval.

Results:

Test-retest ICCs for PANES items ranged from .52 to .88. Spearman correlations for the PANES single item vs NEWS-A subscale comparisons ranged from .27 to .81 (all P < .01).

Conclusions:

PANES items related to land use mix, residential density, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetic qualities, and safety from traffic and crime were supported by correlations with NEWS-A subscales. Access to recreation facilities and street connectivity items were not supported. The brevity of PANES allows items to be included in studies or surveillance systems to expand knowledge about neighborhood environments.

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Kelley K. Pettee Gabriel, Rebecca L. Rankin, Chong Lee, Mary E. Charlton, Pamela D. Swan and Barbara E. Ainsworth

Background:

The 400 m walk test has been used in older adults; however, the applicability in middle-aged populations is unknown.

Methods:

Data were obtained from the Evaluation of Physical Activity Measures in Middle-Aged Women (PAW) Study and included 66 women (52.6 ± 5.4 years). Participants were instructed to walk at a brisk, maintainable pace; time taken to complete the 400 m was recorded in seconds. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to assess test-retest reliability. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to examine the concurrent validity of the walk test with cardiorespiratory fitness and associations with physical activity, body composition, flexibility, static balance, and muscular fitness, adjusted for age and body mass index.

Results:

Participants completed the walk at visits 4 and 5 in 248.0 and 245.0 seconds, respectively. The walk test had excellent reproducibility [ICC = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.97)] and was significantly associated with estimated (ρ = −0.43; P < 0.0001) and measured (ρ = −0.56; P < 0.001) VO2max. The walk test was also significantly related to physical activity, body composition, flexibility, and balance.

Conclusions:

These findings support the utility of the 400 m walk test to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness and reflect free-living physical activity in healthy, middle-aged women.

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Kelly R. Laurson, Gregory J. Welk and Joey C. Eisenmann

Background:

The purpose of this study was to provide a practical demonstration of the impact of monitoring frame and metric when assessing pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) in youth.

Methods:

Children (N = 1111) were asked to wear pedometers over a 7-day period during which time worn and steps were recorded each day. Varying data-exclusion criteria were used to demonstrate changes in estimates of PA. Steps were expressed using several metrics and criteria, and construct validity was demonstrated via correlations with adiposity.

Results:

Meaningful fluctuations in average steps per day and percentage meeting PA recommendations were apparent when different criteria were used. Children who wore the pedometer longer appeared more active, with each minute the pedometer was worn each day accounting for an approximate increase of 11 and 8 steps for boys and girls, respectively (P < .05). Using more restrictive exclusion criteria led to stronger correlations between indices of steps per day, steps per minute, steps per leg length, steps per minute per leg length, and obesity.

Conclusion:

Wear time has a meaningful impact on estimates of PA. This should be considered when determining exclusion criteria and making comparisons between studies. Results also suggest that incorporating wear time per day and leg length into the metric may increase validity of PA estimates.

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Lydia Kwak, Maria Hagströmer and Michael Sjostrom

Background:

To be able to draw any conclusions regarding the health effects of occupational physical activity (OPA), more information is needed regarding valid measures to assess OPA. Aims were to compare OPA as assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long version (IPAQ-L) with OPA assessed with an accelerometer and to assess the contribution of OPA to total PA.

Methods:

Working adults (n = 441; mean age = 49.4 yrs; 44% males) wore an accelerometer for 7 days in free-living situations and completed the IPAQ-L. Comparisons were made between IPAQ-L-work and accelerometer data limited to working time (Moderate and Vigorous PA (accelerometer-MVPA-work) and average intensity). Subgroup analyses were performed.

Results:

Spearman correlation was r = .46 (P < .01) between IPAQ-L-work and accelerometer-MVPA-work. Correlations ranged from r = .27 to r = .55 in respectively obese and overweight subjects. The contribution of IPAQ-L-work to IPAQ-total was 24.7%.

Conclusions:

The IPAQ-L work domain is a moderately good measure of time spent on MVPA at work and can be used to assess the contribution of OPA to total PA. This study provides valuable information regarding the use of the IPAQ-L in assessing work domain specific PA, and underscores the importance of assessing OPA, as it can contribute for a substantial part to total PA.

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Randall J. Bergman, Justin W. Spellman, Michael E. Hall and Shawn M. Bergman

Background:

This study examined the validity of a selected free pedometer application (iPedometer; IP) for the iPhone that could be used to assess physical activity.

Methods:

Twenty college students (10 men, 10 women; mean age: 21.85 ± 1.57 yrs) wore an iPhone at 3 locations (pocket, waist, arm) and a StepWatch 3 Step Activity Monitor (SW) on their right ankle while walking on a treadmill at 5 different speeds (54, 67, 80, 94, 107 m·min−1). A research assistant counted steps with a tally counter (TC).

Results:

Statistical significance between the TC, SW, and IP was found during every condition except IP in the pocket at 107 m·min−1 (F 2,38 = .64, P = .54). Correlations involving the IP revealed only 1 positive correlation (IP on arm at 54 m·min−1) for any of the conditions (r = .46, P = .05).

Conclusion:

The IP application was not accurate in counting steps and recorded significantly lower step counts than the SW and TC. Thus, the free pedometer application used is not a valid instrument for monitoring activity during treadmill walking.