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Salih A. Salih, Nancye M. Peel, Di Enright and Wendy Marshall

to discharge, but not for the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), which is used to determine the level of assistance required during the performance of motor tasks, self-care activities, communication, and cognitive tasks (with total score ranging from 18–126 and higher score indicating greater

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Frances A. Kanach, Amy M. Pastva, Katherine S. Hall, Juliessa M. Pavon and Miriam C. Morey

( Kortebein et al., 2008 ; Puthucheary et al., 2013 ). Without a preventive intervention, hospital-associated deconditioning and disability has the potential to precipitate short- and long-term consequences including loss of mobility, independence, and quality of life. Additional negative outcomes may

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Bobbi-Jo Atchison and Donna L. Goodwin

the transition and independence of their children in physical activity environments. However, due to lack of funding flexibility, funds were designated to support activities such as parent respite. Jack explained that parents were encouraged to access public leisure, but to obtain government support

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Margaret E. Whitehead, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Niek Pot

value in promoting self-efficacy and self-confidence is underwritten by psychologists, who also champion the important role of self-esteem in developing characteristics such as independence and creativity ( Chen, 2015 ). In the sphere of sociocultural studies, it is suggested that physical literacy can

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Judith Jiménez-Díaz, Karla Chaves-Castro and Walter Salazar

, assessment for the violation of the assumption of independence for studies that included multiple ESs was conducted following the guidelines of Borenstein et al. 29 All analyses were conducted using MetaXL and OpenMeta. Nonoverlapping 95% CIs were considered statistically significant. Heterogeneity and

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

subjects To assess the effects of a 12-wk program of gait training assisted by FES on locomotor function and quality of life of individuals with SCI. 12 wk F: 3× per week I: NM T: gait training T: NM Improved overground gait resistance (6MWT). Greater gait independence (WISCI). Tendency to higher gait

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Jordana Salma, Allyson Jones, Savera Aziz Ali, Bukola Salami and Shelby Yamamoto

Staying active in older age was emphasized by all participants of both genders in this study as central to healthy aging due to perceived physical, emotional, and social benefits. Older adults valued independence by maintaining activities of daily living while not being a “burden” on their families or on

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Suguru Ando, Yumi Higuchi, Tomomi Kitagawa, Tatsunori Murakami and Emiko Todo

optimal pace walking in older adults ( Floegel, Florez-Pregonero, Hekler, & Buman, 2017 ). Secondary outcomes As secondary incidental outcomes, we evaluated ADL and physical functions. For ADL, we used the Functional Independence Measure ( Granger, Hamilton, Linacre, Heinemann, & Wright, 1993 ). For the

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Adrián Hernández-Vicente, Alejandro Santos-Lozano, Carmen Mayolas-Pi, Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Natalia Bustamante, Eva M. Gómez-Trullén, Alejandro Lucia and Nuria Garatachea

.5) and number of drugs consumed (2.1 vs. 9.9) by nonagenarians was greater. However, nonagenarians showed greater independence in the activities of daily living. Table 1 Descriptive Characteristics of Centenarians and Nonagenarians Group Outcome Centenarians Nonagenarians Age (years) 100.8 ± 0.8 (100

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Emily Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Adam Wacher, Christopher S. Fry and Douglas Paddon-Jones

analysis. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health ( R01 NR012973 to D. Paddon-Jones) and in part by the Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center grant ( P30 AG024832 ) and the National Center for Research Resources ( 1UL1RR029876 ). The study was conducted with the