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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn and Andrew Murray

certain performance data (percent body fat, vertical jump) saw the greatest significant improvements in the first year of eligibility, whilst others also made further improvements into the second year (agility, lean body mass, power index from the vertical jump). Of the performance data, only bench press

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher and Gavin Breslin

.g., improve lean body mass, reduce fat) and many AAS users conduct their own risk-benefit analyses, to the extent that the cosmetic benefits of AAS appear to outweigh the negative health risks ( Kanayama & Pope, 2018 ). In contrast to recreational drugs (e.g., narcotics) typically encountered during adolescence

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

, 151 – 158 . PubMed ID: 20388497 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 Garthe , I. , Raastad , T. , & Sundgot-Borgen , J. ( 2011 ). Long-term effect of nutritional counselling on desired gain in body mass and lean body mass in elite athletes . Applied Physiology

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2017 ). A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . PLoS ONE, 12 , e0181387 . PubMed ID: 28719669 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181387 10.1371/journal.pone.0181387

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Brett D. Tarca, Thomas P. Wycherley, Paul Bennett, Anthony Meade and Katia E. Ferrar

195 hip osteoarthritis patients . Semin Arthritis Rheum . 2017 ; 46 ( 4 ): 387 – 394 . PubMed ID: 27665019 doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2016.08.004 27665019 67. El Ghoch M , Rossi AP , Calugi S , et al . Physical performance measures in screening for reduced lean body mass in adult females

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

muscle and lean body mass (LBM), there is a general increase in adiposity with age. Thus, sports that require a high strength-to-mass ratio may be affected, to a greater extent, with age. The age of peak performance in athletics is relatively stable across sport disciplines and generally occurs in early

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YoonMyung Kim

insulin sensitivity, muscular strength, and lean body mass in the absence of weight change, but hepatic lipid content and VAT remained unchanged ( 61 ). Similarly, Davis et al ( 13 ) also reported no change in hepatic lipid content after circuit training (aerobic + resistance exercise, 2 times/wk, 60

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

normalized to body weight, but only 3.6% smaller when area was normalized to lean body mass ( Anderson et al., 2001 ) These results are similar to bone and tendon where greater size and strength were more strongly correlated with muscle mass than height, weight, fat mass, total mass, or BMI ( Culvenor et

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis

b013e3182439613 10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182439613 Bjørnsen , T. , Salvesen , S. , Berntsen , S. , Hetlelid , K.J. , Stea , T.H. , Lohne-Seiler , H. , … Paulsen , G. ( 2016 ). Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

.A. ( 1988 ). Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass . Journal of Applied Physiology, 64 ( 1 ), 187 – 193 . PubMed ID: 3356636 doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2016