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squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1, but not in group 2. In the control group, an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

of LEA, evenly distributed intake of protein (20–30 g every 3–4 hr) may support the maintenance of lean body mass and improve satiety ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ). Throws Shot put Hammer Discus Javelin Physique requirements: A high body mass and BMI, moderate muscularity. Strong arms and legs, larger

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

(EI; Loucks, 2004 ). Since fat-free mass (FFM) has a greater capacity for energy expenditure than fat mass, it is intuitive to express EA relative to FFM (or lean body mass [LBM]) rather than total body mass, yielding the equation ( Loucks, 2004 ): EA = ( EI − EEE ) / FFM . Ideally, an athlete’s EI

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

normalized to body weight, but only 3.6% smaller when area was normalized to lean body mass ( Anderson et al., 2001 ) These results are similar to bone and tendon where greater size and strength were more strongly correlated with muscle mass than height, weight, fat mass, total mass, or BMI ( Culvenor et

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

muscle fitness in adolescence and in preadolescent children, with lower circulating androgens, may be important as muscle fitness adaptations in children are explained primarily by neural adaptations and less by increased muscle fiber volume. 35 Gains in lean body mass and the concomitant increase in

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

.A. ( 1988 ). Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass . Journal of Applied Physiology, 64 ( 1 ), 187 – 193 . PubMed ID: 3356636 doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2016

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YoonMyung Kim

insulin sensitivity, muscular strength, and lean body mass in the absence of weight change, but hepatic lipid content and VAT remained unchanged ( 61 ). Similarly, Davis et al ( 13 ) also reported no change in hepatic lipid content after circuit training (aerobic + resistance exercise, 2 times/wk, 60

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis

b013e3182439613 10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182439613 Bjørnsen , T. , Salvesen , S. , Berntsen , S. , Hetlelid , K.J. , Stea , T.H. , Lohne-Seiler , H. , … Paulsen , G. ( 2016 ). Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training

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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

dilute any inflammatory effects from a previous trial. Table 1 Participant Characteristics, Mead (SD) Age, y 20.9 (1.7) Body mass, kg 72.4 (5.1) Height, cm 175.4 (5.7) Body fat, % 17.5 (4.4) Body fat, kg 13.0 (5.1) Lean body mass, kg 59.9 (3.7) VO 2 max, mL/kg/min 57.1 (2.2) Yo-Yo IE2, m 2580 (308) Yo

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Brett D. Tarca, Thomas P. Wycherley, Paul Bennett, Anthony Meade and Katia E. Ferrar

.1016/j.semarthrit.2016.08.004 27665019 67. El Ghoch M , Rossi AP , Calugi S , et al . Physical performance measures in screening for reduced lean body mass in adult females with obesity . Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis . 2018 ; 28 ( 9 ): 917 – 921 . PubMed ID: 30017438 doi:10.1016/j.numecd.2018