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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

of LEA, evenly distributed intake of protein (20–30 g every 3–4 hr) may support the maintenance of lean body mass and improve satiety ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ). Throws Shot put Hammer Discus Javelin Physique requirements: A high body mass and BMI, moderate muscularity. Strong arms and legs, larger

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squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1, but not in group 2. In the control group, an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1

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Louise M. Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Ida L. Fahrenholtz and Anna K. Melin

(EI; Loucks, 2004 ). Since fat-free mass (FFM) has a greater capacity for energy expenditure than fat mass, it is intuitive to express EA relative to FFM (or lean body mass [LBM]) rather than total body mass, yielding the equation ( Loucks, 2004 ): EA = ( EI − EEE ) / FFM . Ideally, an athlete’s EI

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher and Gavin Breslin

.g., improve lean body mass, reduce fat) and many AAS users conduct their own risk-benefit analyses, to the extent that the cosmetic benefits of AAS appear to outweigh the negative health risks ( Kanayama & Pope, 2018 ). In contrast to recreational drugs (e.g., narcotics) typically encountered during adolescence

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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

dilute any inflammatory effects from a previous trial. Table 1 Participant Characteristics, Mead (SD) Age, y 20.9 (1.7) Body mass, kg 72.4 (5.1) Height, cm 175.4 (5.7) Body fat, % 17.5 (4.4) Body fat, kg 13.0 (5.1) Lean body mass, kg 59.9 (3.7) VO 2 max, mL/kg/min 57.1 (2.2) Yo-Yo IE2, m 2580 (308) Yo

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

normalized to body weight, but only 3.6% smaller when area was normalized to lean body mass ( Anderson et al., 2001 ) These results are similar to bone and tendon where greater size and strength were more strongly correlated with muscle mass than height, weight, fat mass, total mass, or BMI ( Culvenor et

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

muscle fitness in adolescence and in preadolescent children, with lower circulating androgens, may be important as muscle fitness adaptations in children are explained primarily by neural adaptations and less by increased muscle fiber volume. 35 Gains in lean body mass and the concomitant increase in

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

.A. ( 1988 ). Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass . Journal of Applied Physiology, 64 ( 1 ), 187 – 193 . PubMed ID: 3356636 doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2016

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

, 151 – 158 . PubMed ID: 20388497 doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 10.1016/j.brainres.2010.04.004 Garthe , I. , Raastad , T. , & Sundgot-Borgen , J. ( 2011 ). Long-term effect of nutritional counselling on desired gain in body mass and lean body mass in elite athletes . Applied Physiology

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2017 ). A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . PLoS ONE, 12 , e0181387 . PubMed ID: 28719669 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181387 10.1371/journal.pone.0181387