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squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1, but not in group 2. In the control group, an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

normalized to body weight, but only 3.6% smaller when area was normalized to lean body mass ( Anderson et al., 2001 ) These results are similar to bone and tendon where greater size and strength were more strongly correlated with muscle mass than height, weight, fat mass, total mass, or BMI ( Culvenor et

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YoonMyung Kim

insulin sensitivity, muscular strength, and lean body mass in the absence of weight change, but hepatic lipid content and VAT remained unchanged ( 61 ). Similarly, Davis et al ( 13 ) also reported no change in hepatic lipid content after circuit training (aerobic + resistance exercise, 2 times/wk, 60

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

muscle fitness in adolescence and in preadolescent children, with lower circulating androgens, may be important as muscle fitness adaptations in children are explained primarily by neural adaptations and less by increased muscle fiber volume. 35 Gains in lean body mass and the concomitant increase in

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Michael J. Ormsbee, Brandon D. Willingham, Tasha Marchant, Teresa L. Binkley, Bonny L. Specker and Matthew D. Vukovich

.A. ( 1988 ). Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass . Journal of Applied Physiology, 64 ( 1 ), 187 – 193 . PubMed ID: 3356636 doi:10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.1.187 Thomas , D.T. , Erdman , K.A. , & Burke , L.M. ( 2016

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Theofanis Tzatzakis, Konstantinos Papanikolaou, Dimitrios Draganidis, Panagiotis Tsimeas, Savvas Kritikos, Athanasios Poulios, Vasiliki C. Laschou, Chariklia K. Deli, Athanasios Chatzinikolaou, Alexios Batrakoulis, Georgios Basdekis, Magni Mohr, Peter Krustrup, Athanasios Z. Jamurtas and Ioannis G. Fatouros

dilute any inflammatory effects from a previous trial. Table 1 Participant Characteristics, Mead (SD) Age, y 20.9 (1.7) Body mass, kg 72.4 (5.1) Height, cm 175.4 (5.7) Body fat, % 17.5 (4.4) Body fat, kg 13.0 (5.1) Lean body mass, kg 59.9 (3.7) VO 2 max, mL/kg/min 57.1 (2.2) Yo-Yo IE2, m 2580 (308) Yo

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

. , & Phillips , S.M. ( 2017 ). A whey protein-based multi-ingredient nutritional supplement stimulates gains in lean body mass and strength in healthy older men: A randomized controlled trial . PLoS ONE, 12 , e0181387 . PubMed ID: 28719669 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181387 10.1371/journal.pone.0181387

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Hugh H.K. Fullagar, Robert McCunn and Andrew Murray

certain performance data (percent body fat, vertical jump) saw the greatest significant improvements in the first year of eligibility, whilst others also made further improvements into the second year (agility, lean body mass, power index from the vertical jump). Of the performance data, only bench press

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Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis

b013e3182439613 10.1097/WOX.0b013e3182439613 Bjørnsen , T. , Salvesen , S. , Berntsen , S. , Hetlelid , K.J. , Stea , T.H. , Lohne-Seiler , H. , … Paulsen , G. ( 2016 ). Vitamin C and E supplementation blunts increases in total lean body mass in elderly men after strength training

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher and Gavin Breslin

.g., improve lean body mass, reduce fat) and many AAS users conduct their own risk-benefit analyses, to the extent that the cosmetic benefits of AAS appear to outweigh the negative health risks ( Kanayama & Pope, 2018 ). In contrast to recreational drugs (e.g., narcotics) typically encountered during adolescence