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Chia-Yuan Yu

Background:

Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level.

Methods:

A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N = 7714) was used. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the impacts of social cohesion and physical activity on obesity, and the relative risks (RR) were reported.

Results:

The median age was 73 years old, and 59.8% of respondents were female; 23.8% met the recommended level of moderate physical activity. Neighborhood social cohesion was not associated with obesity for older adults. Meeting the recommended level of vigorous physical activity was related to a lower probability of obesity only for older Hispanic adults (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.50), while older adults were less likely to be obese if they met the recommended level of moderate physical activity.

Conclusions:

Increasing the level of physical activity may profoundly reduce the probability of obesity for older adults. Moreover, the results implied the need for future physical activity interventions for minorities.

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Susan G. Zieff, Mi-Sook Kim, Jackson Wilson and Patrick Tierney

Background:

Temporary parks such as the monthly event, Sunday Streets SF, support public health goals by using existing infrastructure and street closures to provide physical activity in neighborhoods underserved for recreational resources. Sunday Streets creates routes to enhance community connection.

Methods:

Six hundred and thirty-nine participants at 3 Sunday Streets events were surveyed using a 36-item instrument of open- and closed-ended questions about overall physical activity behavior, physical activity while at Sunday Streets, experience of the events, and demographic data.

Results:

Overall, Sunday Streets participants are physically active (79% engage in activity 3–7 days/week) and approximately represent the ethnic minority distribution of the city. There were significant differences between first-time attendees and multiple-event attendees by duration of physical activity at the event (55.83 minutes vs. 75.13 minutes) and by frequency of physical activity bouts per week (3.69 vs. 4.22). Both groups emphasized the positive experience and safe environment as reasons to return to the event; for first-time attendees, the social environment was another reason to return.

Conclusions:

Temporary parks like Sunday Streets have the potential to provide healthful, population-wide physical activity using existing streets. The trend toward increased activity by multiple-event attendees suggests the importance of a regular schedule of events.

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Robin DeWeese and Punam Ohri-Vachaspati

Background:

Active commuting to school (ACS) increases students’ daily physical activity, but associations between student weight and ACS are inconsistent. Few studies examining ACS and weight account for distance commuted. This study examines the association between students’ weight status and ACS, taking into account distance to school.

Methods:

In 2009–10 a random digit-dial household survey conducted in low-income minority cities collected information about ACS for 1 randomly selected school-going student per household. Parents provided measured heights and weights. Distance commuted was obtained using geocoded home and school addresses. Multivariate regression analyses assessed associations of ACS and distance commuted with weight status.

Results:

36.6% of students were overweight/obese; 47.2% engaged in ACS. Distance walked/biked to school was associated with 7% lower odds of overweight/obesity (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88– 0.99). Without distance commuted in the model, ACS was not associated with students’ weight status. Compared with no ACS, ACS greater than a half-mile was associated with 65% lower odds of a student being overweight/obese (OR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16– 0.78); ACS less than a half-mile was not.

Conclusions:

ACS is significantly inversely associated with overweight/obesity among students who commute beyond a one-half mile threshold.

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Kristin M. Mills, Anita L. Stewart, Barbara Y. McLellan, Carol J. Verboncoeur, Abby C. King and Byron W. Brown

Health-promotion programs’ success depends on their ability to enroll representative samples of the target population, particularly those who are hard to reach and those who can benefit the most from such programs. This article evaluates enrollment bias in the recruitment process, examines the usefulness of a 2-phased recruitment strategy in enrolling representative proportions of eligible individuals in a physical-activity-promotion program for older adults, and explores predictors of enrollment. Of 1,381 randomly selected Medicare HMO members. 519 were eligible. Of these, 54% attended an informational meeting and 33% enrolled in the program. Relative to the target population, a representative proportion of women was enrolled, but those who enrolled were slightly younger. Of those who were eligible, a representative proportion of sedentary participants was recruited, those who were overweight were overrep-resented, and the oldest old, less educated, ethnic minorities, and precontem-plators of physical activity were underrepresented. Modifiable predictors of enrollment included interest in health, previous health-class attendance, and having had a physician recommend exercise.

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Jamie Zoellner, Carol Connell, Alicia Powers, Amanda Avis-Williams, Kathy Yadrick and Margaret L. Bogle

Background:

Race/ethnic-specific physical activity patterns and biological responses to physical activity is one of the most understudied, yet critical aspects related to the development and adoption of physical activity recommendations.

Methods:

In this 6-month community walking intervention targeting African Americans, participants wore a pedometer and maintained a pedometer diary for the study duration. Outcome measures included height, weight, percent body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids and glucose. ANOVA, Pearson Correlations, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine changes in steps/day over each month of the intervention and explore associations among pedometer-determined physical activity and anthropometric/biological change scores from month 1 to 6.

Results:

The 83 participants were primarily African American (98%) women (94%). There was a significant increase in the average step/day beginning with 6665 (SD = 3,396) during month 1 and increasing to 9232 (SD = 3670) steps/day during month 6 (F = 4.5, P < .0001). Associations among step counts and anthropometric/biological change scores were not significant.

Conclusions:

While this intervention resulted in significant increases in steps/day; it exemplifies that physical activity standards may be unachievable for some vulnerable, minority communities. Methodological considerations for exploring associations between changes in pedometer-determined step counts and anthropometric/biological outcomes are emphasized through this study.

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Susan A. Carlson, Roxanna Guide, Thomas L. Schmid, Latetia V. Moore, Danielle T. Barradas and Janet E. Fulton

Background:

Street-scale urban design policies are recommended to increase physical activity in communities. Our purpose was to examine U.S. public support for local street-scale urban design features and policies.

Methods:

Analysis is based on a cross-sectional national sample of adults (n = 4682) participating in the 2006 HealthStyles mail survey.

Results:

About 57% of adults rated local street-scale urban design as highly important in determining the amount of physical activity they obtain. Adjusted odds of rating neighborhood features as having high importance were higher in people aged ≥65 years versus those <65 and minority racial/ethnic groups versus non-Hispanic whites. Two-thirds of adults were willing to take civic action to support local street-scale urban design policy. Adjusted odds of being willing to take any action versus none was higher in non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites, was higher in those with household incomes ≥$60,000 versus ≤$15,000 per year, and increased as education and perceived importance of neighborhood features increased.

Conclusions:

There are high levels of public support for local street-scale urban design policies; however, demographic differences exist in the level of support. These differences are important considerations for policymakers and for those designing community programs targeting street-scale urban design features and policies.

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Megan Beth Shreffler, Gin Presley and Samuel Schmidt

In 1981, Donald Sterling became the owner of the San Diego Clippers, an ownership that would prove troublesome for the National Basketball Association (NBA). During his 33 years as an owner of the Clippers, Sterling had four major lawsuits for racial discrimination filed against him and was accused of running the organization with the vision of a “southern plantation-type structure.” On April 25, 2014, the allegations of racist behavior were taken to a new level when Sterling was recorded by his girlfriend, V. Stiviano, proclaiming racist statements toward minorities. The audio recording was put online for the world to hear (mere hours after the conversation) leading to extensive public backlash. Sterling’s comments ultimately led to his demise in the NBA, as NBA Commissioner Adam Silver announced, 4 days after the incident, that Sterling received a $2.5 million fine and was banned from the Clippers organization and the NBA for life. Given the immediacy of the spreading of information on the incident, the NBA and Commissioner Silver knew they had to manage the crisis as swiftly as possible. This case examines Sterling’s involvement with the NBA, his history with racism, and the NBA’s responses to the leaked recording. Multiple models for crisis management and decision making are discussed to help readers develop their own plan for working through organizational crises.

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Karen E. Johnson, Martha Y. Kubik and Barbara J. McMorris

Background:

Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students.

Methods:

In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA.

Results:

Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014).

Conclusion:

Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.

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Charlotte Louise Edwardson, Trish Gorely, Hayley Musson, Rebecca Duncombe and Rachel Sandford

Background:

Previous research has shown a positive relationship between activity-related social support provided by parents and peers and adolescents’ physical activity. However, more information is needed on whether activity-related social support differs by sociodemographic characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in activity-related social support in a sample of adolescents, by characteristics such as age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and physical activity level and to determine which characteristics are the most important predictors of activity-related social support.

Methods:

Information was provided by 578 boys and 588 girls (11–14 years) on demographic factors, physical activity, and activity-related support. ANOVA, correlations, and multiple regression were performed to address the purposes of the study.

Results:

Boys, White British, younger, more physically active, and high-SES adolescents perceived more support for physical activity. Age predicted all types of support excluding peer support; ethnicity predicted mother logistic support and sibling support; gender predicted peer support, father explicit modeling, and father logistic support; and SES predicted mother and father logistic support.

Conclusions:

Families and peers of adolescents who are female, from Black and minority ethnic groups, older, of low-SES, and less active should be targeted for intervention.

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Hannah G. Lawman, Dawn K. Wilson, M. Lee Van Horn, Ken Resnicow and Heather Kitzman-Ulrich

Background:

Previous research suggests motivation, enjoyment, and self-efficacy may be important psycho-social factors for understanding physical activity (PA) in youth. While previous studies have shown mixed results, emerging evidence indicates relationships between psychosocial factors and PA may be stronger in boys than girls. This study expands on previous research by examining in the effects of motivation, enjoyment, and self-efficacy on PA in underserved adolescents (low income, ethnic minorities) boys and girls. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized the effects of motivation, enjoyment, and self-efficacy on moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) would be stronger in boys than in girls.

Methods:

Baseline cross-sectional data were obtained from a randomized, school-based trial (Active by Choice Today; ACT) in underserved 6th graders (N = 771 girls, 651 boys). Intrapersonal variables for PA were assessed via self-report and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for each predictor. MVPA was assessed with 7-day accelerometry estimates.

Results:

Multivariate regression analyses stratified by sex demonstrated a significant positive main effect of self-efficacy and motivation on MVPA for girls. Boys also showed a positive trend for the effect of motivation on MVPA.

Conclusions:

The results from this study suggest motivation and self-efficacy should be better integrated to facilitate the development of more effective interventions for increasing PA in underserved adolescents.