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Haydn Jarrett, Liam Fitzgerald and Ash C. Routen

Background:

Currently, no studies have investigated interinstrument reliability of the ActiGraph (AG) GT3X+ in free-living conditions.

Methods:

Nineteen adults (11 males, 8 females; aged 36.8 ± 11.9 years) wore a pair of AG’s (one on each hip), during all waking hours for 1 day. Raw outputs were generated for total counts, steps, wear time and mean counts per minute. Intensity outputs were derived for time (minutes) spent in <moderate, moderate, vigorous, very vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Intraclass correlation (ICC), absolute percent difference (APD), coefficient of variation (CV), Bland-Altman plots, and paired t tests were used to evaluate reliability.

Results:

Interinstrument reliability was high (CV < 5%) for raw count and derived intensity outputs, except vigorous and very vigorous activity. ICC, CV, and APD values for vigorous and very vigorous were .97, 12.28, 17.36% and .98, 18.15, 25.67%, respectively. Amalgamating moderate, vigorous, and very vigorous into a single MVPA category reduced the CV and APD values to 2.85 and 4.02%, and increased the ICC value to .99. No significant differences were found between contralateral units for any outputs (P > .05).

Conclusion:

Reliability decreases beyond moderate intensities. MVPA displays superior interinstrument reliability than individual intensity categories. Research question permitting, reporting time in MVPA may maximize reliability.

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Dana L. Wolff-Hughes, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, David R. Bassett and James R. Churilla

Background:

Accelerometer-derived total activity count is a measure of total physical activity (PA) volume. The purpose of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific percentiles for daily total activity counts (TAC), minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and minutes of light physical activity (LPA) in U.S. adults.

Methods:

Waist-worn accelerometer data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used for this analysis. The sample included adults >20 years with >10 hours accelerometer wear time on >4 days (N = 6093). MVPA and LPA were defined as the number of 1-minute epochs with counts >2020 and 100 to 2019, respectively. TAC represented the activity counts acquired daily. TAC, MVPA, and LPA were averaged across valid days to produce a daily mean.

Results:

Males in the 50th percentile accumulated 288 140 TAC/day, with 357 and 22 minutes/day spent in LPA and MVPA, respectively. The median for females was 235 741 TAC/day, with 349 and 12 minutes/day spent in LPA and MVPA, respectively.

Conclusions:

Population-referenced TAC percentiles reflect the total volume of PA, expressed relative to other adults. This is a different approach to accelerometer data reduction that complements the current method of looking at time spent in intensity subcategories.

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Jihong Liu, Jinseok Kim, Natalie Colabianchi, Andrew Ortaglia and Russell R. Pate

Background:

We examined the covarying patterns of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among adolescents and their long-term maintenance.

Methods:

Data came from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1995–2002). We used latent class analysis to identify distinct covarying patterns in adolescence. Logistic regression models were used to predict odds of meeting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations (≥5 bouts/week) and exceeding screen time guidelines (>2 hours/day) 6 years later based on their adolescent class profile.

Results:

Five classes for each gender were identified and labeled as low physical activity (PA)/low sedentary behaviors (SED), moderate (Mod) PA/high (HI) SED, Mod PA/low SED, HI PA/low SED, and HI PA (except skating/biking)/low SED. Compared with low PA/low SED, males and females in Mod PA/low SED, HI PA/low SED, and HI PA (except skating/biking)/low SED classes had increased odds of meeting MVPA recommendations in young adulthood. Mod PA/HI SED had higher odds of exceeding screen time guidelines in young adulthood (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for females: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.00−2.81; AOR for males: 3.31, 95% CI: 1.80−6.09).

Conclusions:

Findings are useful to aid the development of multifactorial interventions that promote physical activity and reduce screen time among adolescents transitioning to adulthood.

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Cathleen D. Zick

Background:

Extending Daylight Savings Time (DST) has been identified as a policy intervention that may encourage physical activity. However, there has been little research on the question of if DST encourages adults to be more physically active.

Methods:

Data from residents of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah ages 18–64 who participated in the 2003–2009 American Time Use Survey are used to assess whether DST is associated with increased time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The analysis capitalizes on the natural experiment created because Arizona does not observe DST.

Results:

Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that shifting 1 hour of daylight from morning to evening does not impact MVPA of Americans living in the southwest.

Conclusions:

While DST may affect the choices people make about the timing and location of their sports/recreational activities, the potential for DST to serve as a broad-based intervention that encourages greater sports/recreation participation is not supported by this analysis. Whether this null effect would persist in other climate situations is an open question.

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John R. Sirard, Peter Hannan, Gretchen J. Cutler and Dianne Nuemark-Sztainer

Background:

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate self-reported physical activity of young adults using 1-week and 1-year recall measures with an accelerometer as the criterion measure.

Methods:

Participants were a subsample (N = 121, 24 ± 1.7 yrs) from a large longitudinal cohort study. Participants completed a detailed 1-year physical activity recall, wore an accelerometer for 1 week and then completed a brief 1-week physical activity recall when they returned the accelerometer.

Results:

Mean values for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from the 3 instruments were 3.2, 2.2, and 13.7 hours/wk for the accelerometer, 1-week recall, and 1-year recall, respectively (all different from each other, P < .001). Spearman correlations for moderate, vigorous, and MVPA between the accelerometer and the 1-week recall (0.30, 0.50, and 0.40, respectively) and the 1-year recall (0.31, 0.42, and 0.44, respectively) demonstrated adequate validity.

Conclusions:

Both recall instruments may be used for ranking physical activity at the group level. At the individual level, the 1-week recall performed much better in terms of absolute value of physical activity. The 1-year recall overestimated total physical activity but additional research is needed to fully test its validity.

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Jennifer L. Huberty, Michael William Beets, Aaron Beighle and Thomas L. Mckenzie

Background:

Children’s achievement of recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in afterschool programs (ASP) is complex. It is unclear what elements of the ASP environment influence children’s physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of staff behaviors and ASP features (eg, organized activity, recreational equipment) to MVPA participation in youth attending ASPs.

Methods:

Data were collected in 12 ASPs in the Midwest. Staff behavior and child PA was measured using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth. The percentage of children’s MVPA was examined in relation to staff behaviors and ASP features.

Results:

Increases in MVPA were observed when staff were directly engaged in PA, verbally promoted MVPA, and when PA was organized and equipment was present. When 3 or more of these characteristics were present, the proportion of children engaged in MVPA increased by 25%−30%. Conversely, MVPA levels decreased when these characteristics were absent and when staff were attending to other ASP duties or were supervising.

Conclusion:

This study provides evidence about the specific staff behaviors that may influence higher proportions of youth being active during ASP and implies specific skills that need to be incorporated into ASP staff training.

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Jennifer R. O’Neill, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

Background:

Little is known about the relationship between children’s physical activity (PA) in preschool (in-school) and outside of preschool (out-of-school). This study described this relationship.

Methods:

Participants were 341 children (4.6 ± 0.3 years) in 16 preschools. Accelerometers measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity (TPA) in-school and out-of-school. In the full sample, Pearson correlation was used to describe associations between in-school and out-of-school PA. In addition, children were categorized as meeting or not meeting a PA guideline during school. MVPA and TPA were compared between the 2 groups and in-school and out-of-school using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance.

Results:

In the full sample, in-school and out-of-school PA were positively correlated for MVPA (r = .13, P = .02) and TPA (r = .15, P = .01). Children who met the guideline in-school remained comparably active out-of-school. However, those who did not meet the guideline were more active out-of-school than in-school. The groups were active at comparable levels while out-of-school. Identical patterns were seen for MVPA and TPA.

Conclusions:

Children’s in-school PA was positively associated with out-of-school PA. Children who did not meet the guideline in-school were more active out-of-school than in-school, suggesting preschool and classroom factors may reduce some children’s PA in-school.

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Thais R.S. Paulo, Sheilla Tribess, Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Joilson Meneguci, Cristiane A. Martins, Ismael F. Freitas Jr., Vicente Romo-Perez and Jair S. Virtuoso Jr.

The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with depression and cognition deficit, separately and combined, in Brazilian older adults. We analyzed data from 622 older adults. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale, while cognitive deficit was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess associations of depression and cognitive deficit with sociodemographic, health, and behavioral variables. Prevalence of physical inactivity (< 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/week), depression, and cognitive deficit were 35.7%, 37.4%, and 16.7%. Physical inactivity was associated with depression (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.14–2.94) and with depression and cognitive deficit combined (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 2.01–8.91). Physically inactive participants were also more likely to present limitations in orientation and language functions. Physical inactivity was associated with depression and also with depression and cognitive deficit combined in older adults.

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Chuhe Chen, Gerald J. Jerome, Daniel LaFerriere, Deborah Rohm Young and William M. Vollmer

Background:

Accelerometers measure intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activity. However, the scarcity of reports on data reduction makes comparing accelerometer results across studies difficult.

Methods:

Participants were asked to wear a triaxial accelerometer (RT3) for ≥10 hours for at least 4 days, including one weekend day. We summarize our data-cleaning procedures and assess the impact of defining a usable day of measurements as at least 6, 8, or 10 hours of wear time, and of standardizing data to a 12-hour day.

Results:

Eighty-two percent of participants met wear time requirements; 93% met requirements when we defined a day as 8-or-more hours of wear time. Normalization of data to a 12-hour day had little impact on estimates of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 16.9 vs. 17.1 minutes); restricting MVPA to activities occurring in bouts of 10 minutes or longer had greater impact (16.9 vs. 6.3 minutes per day).

Conclusion:

Our account of accelerometry quality-control and data-cleaning procedures documents the small impact of variations in daily wear time requirements on MVPA estimates, and the larger impact of evaluating total MVPA vs. MVPA occurring in extended bouts. This paper should allow other researchers to duplicate or revise our methods as needed.

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Michael W. Beets, Aaron Beighle, Matteo Bottai, Laura Rooney and Fallon Tilley

Background:

Policies to require afterschool programs (ASPs, 3 PM to 6 PM) to provide children a minimum of 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exist. With few low-cost, easy-to-use measures of MVPA available to the general public, ASP providers are limited in their ability to track progress toward achieving this policy-goal. Pedometers may fill this gap, yet there are no step-count guidelines for ASPs linked to 30 minutes of MVPA.

Methods:

Steps and accelerometer estimates of MVPA were collected concurrently over multiple days on 245 children (8.2 years, 48% boys, BMI-percentile 68.2) attending 3 community-based ASPs. Random intercept logit models and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to identify a threshold of steps that corresponded with attaining 30 minutes of MVPA.

Results:

Children accumulated an average of 2876 steps (standard error [SE] 79) and 16.1 minutes (SE0.5) of MVPA over 111 minutes (SE1.3) during the ASP. A threshold of 4600 steps provided high specificity (0.967) and adequate sensitivity (0.646) for discriminating children who achieved the 30 minutes of MVPA; 93% of the children were correctly classified. The total area under the curve was 0.919. Children accumulating 4600 steps were 25times more likely to accumulate 30 minutes of MVPA.

Conclusions:

This step threshold will provide ASP leaders with an objective, low-cost, easy-to-use tool to monitor progress toward policy-related goals.