American football is the most popular sport in the United States. Its popularity is likely related to the intense, fast-paced, physical style of play. The importance of strength and conditioning to success in football has been long understood. In fact, the strength and conditioning profession in North America can take its roots from American football. However, only recently has scientific study confirmed the positive relationships between strength, speed, and power to success in this sport. Although strength and conditioning are integral to every American football program, the collaboration with sport scientists has not been as fruitful. Only limited studies are available examining the physiological effects of actual competition and physiological adaptations or maladaptations during a season of competition. Most studies on American football have primarily focused on physical performance characteristics of these athletes and how various training paradigms can be used to improve performance.
Jay R. Hoffman
Per G. Svensson and Chad S. Seifried
Sport leaders are redefining organizational paradigms by blending elements from traditional forms of organizing. Leaders of emergent hybrid forms face unique challenges in managing tensions associated with the paradoxical elements they embody. This paper introduces the concept of hybrid organizing and examines its applicability to Sport for Development and Peace (SDP). Specifically, Battilana and Lee’s (2014) multidimensional framework is used to examine the core practices, workforce composition, organizational design, interorganizational relationships, and organizational culture of hybrid SDP entities. Findings from this exploratory empirical work with nine organizations indicate SDP hybrids operate under a multitude of legal structures yet are underlined by shared beliefs that these new forms provide better opportunities for achieving social impact and organizational sustainability. Organizational leaders appear to use a multitude of internal mechanisms for managing the seemingly paradoxical nature of hybrid organizing. Strengths and challenges associated with these efforts were revealed and are critically examined.
Lynette L. Craft and Daniel M. Landers
The effect of exercise on negative affect has been examined in hundreds of studies. However, the effect of exercise on diagnosed clinical depression has received far less attention. Furthermore, poor methodological techniques predominate and results have been conflicting. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise on clinical depression and depression resulting from mental illness. The chosen studies examined the effect of a chronic exercise paradigm (independent variable) on depression (dependent variable). Each study’s variables were coded: design, subjects, exercise, and dependent measure characteristics that could moderate the effect of exercise on depression. Moderator variables were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results from 30 studies showed an overall mean effect of −.72. Therefore, individuals who exercised were −.72 of a standard deviation less depressed than individuals who did not exercise. Moderating variables and implications for the prescription of exercise as an effective treatment for depression are discussed.
Julie DiMatteo, Cynthia Radnitz, Katharine L. Loeb and Jingwen Ni
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine if automatic enrollment in exercise-promoting courses on a college campus, with a choice to opt out, would increase enrollment. Method: In a simulated course selection paradigm, 317 college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: optimal default (automatic enrollment in an active physical education well-being course with the choice to opt out to a sedentary alternative), suboptimal default (automatic enrollment in a sedentary well-being course with the option to select an alternative active physical education courses), or free choice. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results: Participants in the optimal default condition were significantly more likely to enroll in an active physical education well-being course compared with those in the suboptimal-default and free-choice conditions. Discussion/Conclusions: Setting optimal physical education course defaults in the college environment can promote student health by increasing the likelihood of enrolling in exercise-promoting courses.
Artur Poczwardowski, Clay P. Sherman and Ken Ravizza
Practitioners in helping professions have recognized the importance of philosophy of service as a fundamental factor driving the process of behavior change. This article explores professional philosophy as an underlying element of successful sport psychology service delivery. A hierarchical structure of professional philosophy is proposed that delineates important components both overtly discussed and implied in the sport psychology literature. These components—arranged from the most stable and internal to the most dynamic and external—are (a) personal core beliefs and values, (b) theoretical paradigm concerning behavior change, (c) models of practice and the consultant’s role, (d) intervention goals, and (e) intervention techniques and methods. Each component is examined from the perspective that philosophy guides practice. The resulting conceptualization of professional philosophy may be used for both didactic and research purposes aimed at furthering consultant effectiveness in sport settings.
Jennifer L. Etnier, Walter Salazar, Daniel M. Landers, Steven J. Petruzzello, Myungwoo Han and Priscilla Nowell
Nearly 200 studies have examined the impact that either acute or long-term exercise has upon cognition. Subsets of these studies have been reviewed using the traditional narrative method, and the common conclusion has been that the results are mixed. Therefore, a more comprehensive review is needed that includes all available studies and that provides a more objective and reproducible review process. Thus, a meta-analytic review was conducted that included all relevant studies with sufficient information for the calculation of effect size (N = 134). The overall effect size was 0.25, suggesting that exercise has a small positive effect on cognition. Examination of the moderator variables indicated that characteristics related to the exercise paradigm, the participants, the cognitive tests, and the quality of the study influence effect size. However, the most important finding was that as experimental rigor decreased, effect size increased. Therefore, more studies need to be conducted that emphasize experimental rigor.
Thomas M. Lundin, Jon W. Feuerbach and Mark D. Grabiner
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of plantar flexor and dorsiflexor fatigue on postural sway amplitude during unilateral, or one-legged, stance. It was hypothesized that plantar flexor and dorsiflexor fatigue would increase unilateral postural sway amplitude. Eight uninjured male subjects participated in pre- and postfatigue unilateral stability tests. Selected parameters describing medial-lateral (ML) and anterior-posterior (AP) postural sway were measured on a Chattecx Balance System before and after an isokinetic fatigue protocol. The fatigue protocol resulted in a significant increase in ML postural sway amplitude (p < 0.05) and an increase in AP sway amplitude (p = 0.065). Previously, links have been established between increased postural sway amplitude and ankle joint injury. Thus, fatigue of the plantar flexors and dorsiflexors, which increased postural sway amplitude, may render the ankle joint susceptible to injury. Induced ankle muscle fatigue may represent a valid paradigm to study the causes of traumatic ankle joint injury.
Lew Hardy and Nichola Callow
Three experiments examined the relative efficacy of different imagery perspectives on the performance of tasks in which form was important. In Experiment 1,25 experienced karateists learned a new kata using either external or internal visual imagery or stretching. Results indicated that external visual imagery was significantly more effective than internal visual imagery, which was significantly more effective than stretching. In Experiment 2, 40 sport science students learned a simple gymnastics floor routine under one of four conditions: external or internal visual imagery with or without kinesthetic imagery. Results revealed a significant main effect for visual imagery perspective (external visual imagery was best) but no effect for kinesthetic imagery. Experiment 3 employed the same paradigm as Experiment 2 but with high-ability rock climbers performing difficult boulder problems. Results showed significant main effects for both visual imagery perspective (external visual imagery was best) and kinesthetic imagery. The findings are discussed in terms of the cognitive processes that might underlie imagery effects.
Suzanne Malia Lawrence, C. Keith Harrison and Jeff Stone
Perceptual confirmation paradigm (PCP) rooted in social psychology, can be implemented to frame sport science research questions (Stone, Perry, & Darley, 1997). Public perception of college athletes’ lives has been scarcely investigated in the sport sciences (Keels, 2005) using the PCP to prime stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to prime stereotypes about a day in the life of a college athlete by using qualitative inquiry to assess college students’ (N = 87) perceptions. Participants provided written responses about a day in the life of a college athlete. Two different college athlete targets were used “Tyrone Walker” (n = 44) and “Erik Walker” (n = 43). Four major themes and one minor theme emerged which are descriptive of the participants’ perceptions. Findings were related to the leadership responsibilities of sport management practitioners in higher education. Future research inquiries and relevant suggestions were articulated for sport management scholars in the 21st century.
Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Julio Tous-Fajardo, Carlos Valero-Campo, César Berzosa, Ana Vanessa Bataller, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, Gerard Moras and Alberto Mendez-Villanueva
To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements.
Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6–10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test.
Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD.
Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.