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Harsh H. Buddhadev and Philip E. Martin

older cyclists at 50% and 60% of their respective peak power outputs. At these relative cycling intensities, the power outputs of older adults were 27–32 W lower compared with younger adults. Hopker et al. also contrasted differences in gross efficiency between younger and older cyclists at fixed power

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Tyler W.D. Muddle, David H. Fukuda, Ran Wang, Joshua J. Riffe, David D. Church, Kyle S. Beyer, Jay R. Hoffman and Jeffrey R. Stout

Body Power Countermovement jump Following MVC testing, participants performed three bilateral CMJs while standing on a portable force platform (AccuPower; Advanced Mechanical Technology Inc.). During each jump, maximal height (CMJ HT ), peak force (CMJ PKF ), peak power output (CMJ PP ), and rate of

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Kristy Martin, Kevin G. Thompson, Richard Keegan and Ben Rattray

taking place on three occasions. During the initial session, participants completed an incremental cycling test to establish maximum oxygen uptake and peak power output (PPO). Maximum oxygen uptake was used to describe participant’s cardiorespiratory fitness. PPO was used to determine the workload of the

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke

.1% improvement in mean and peak power output, respectively ( Wiles et al., 2006 ). Such performance benefits have also been realized during short-duration maximal dynamic resistance training exercise, where measures of muscle torque production were significantly improved after the consumption of 6 mg/kg caffeine

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Denver M.Y. Brown and Steven R. Bray

.01.001 Zering , J.C. , Brown , D.M. , Graham , J.D. , & Bray , S.R. ( 2017 ). Cognitive control exertion leads to reductions in peak power output and as well as increased perceived exertion on a graded exercise test to exhaustion . Journal of Sports Sciences, 35 , 1799 – 1807 . doi:10

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Neil Armstrong

) cite the research of Barker et al ( 14 ) who proposed that to confirm a maximal value of V ˙ O 2 , following completion of a ramp test to voluntary exhaustion, participants should undergo a verification test at an exercise intensity of 105% of the peak power output in the ramp test. In a research

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

commonly reported but inappropriate food selection may affect an athlete’s energy availability and gut comfort. A state of low-carbohydrate availability has been shown to impair anaerobic work capacity ( Langfort et al., 1997 ) and peak power output ( Wroble et al., 2018 ). However, this effect is evident

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Thomas Haugen, Gøran Paulsen, Stephen Seiler and Øyvind Sandbakk

.1007/s00421-009-1186-3 71. Metikos B , Mikulic P , Sarabon N , Markovic G . Peak power output test on a rowing ergometer: a methodological study . J Strength Cond Res . 2015 ; 29 : 2919 – 2925 . PubMed ID: 25785705 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000944 25785705 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000944 72

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

these variables across distance/time); and associated muscle functional responses (e.g., maximal aerobic speed and sustainable fraction, knee extensor force, and/or peak power output) appear to be strong predictors of performance outcomes in single-stage mountain trail ultramarathons ( Balducci et

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

–7% ( Paton et al., 2015 ; Talanian & Spriet, 2016 ). During short-term, supramaximal, and repeated sprint tasks, 3–6 mg/kg BM of caffeine taken 50–60 min before exercise results in performance gains of >3% for task completion time, mean power output, and peak power output during anaerobic activities of 1