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Benjamin R. Wilson, Kaley E. Robertson, Jeremy M. Burnham, Michael C. Yonz, Mary Lloyd Ireland and Brian Noehren

injury risk. The Y Balance Test requires the subject to be able to control his or her body while maintaining a single-leg stance. Potentially, this requires adequate hip girdle strength to maintain stability of the pelvis and trunk throughout the test. Although relationships have been reported between

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind and L. Joakim Holmberg

of the spinal column is an inappropriate posture because it is related to other risk factors. For example, flexion of the spinal column while lifting causes high anterior shear force in the intervertebral discs. 5 Also, sitting causes the pelvis to tilt backward and the spine to flex slightly

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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

injury risk in male football players, 9 female college athletes, 10 and male military candidates. 11 The lateral step-down (LSD) test can be used to rate the quality of movement based on the alignment of the trunk, pelvis, and knee 12 with scores ranging from 0 to 6. 13 The Y balance test (YBT) was

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

) Walking speed, m/s 1.25 (0.19) 1.17 (0.18) 1.34 (0.16) A set of sixty-four 12.7-mm diameter retroreflective markers were adhered to participants’ feet, legs, pelvis, torso, head, and arms to define anatomical landmarks and track segment motion. 22 Participants performed 8 overground walking trials across

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Ke’La Porter, Carolina Quintana and Matthew Hoch

limb, then cutting 45  in a single step. They performed BH at the fastest speed while maintaining dribbling control, and then the NB trials were completed within a 10% mean speed of the BH trial. Eight trials were collected for each condition. Retroreflective markers were placed on the pelvis and lower

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Marissa C. Gradoz, Lauren E. Bauer, Terry L. Grindstaff and Jennifer J. Bagwell

a barrier to further movement 11 or compensation with further movement as determined by the examiner. It was expected that the examiner would detect a capsular end feel. Visual observation was used to detect compensations. If participants demonstrated lateral trunk or pelvis obliquity or trunk

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

displacement of the subjects’ pelvis. FCU indicates functional capacity utilized. Reduced mechanical output of the plantarflexor muscles during push-off, and thus reduced propulsive forces, are hallmark biomechanical features of elderly gait as well as gait pathology, such as that following a stroke. 2 , 3

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

Categories for Task of Rising from a Supine to a Standing Position (Adapted from Marsala & VanSant, 1998 ; Vansant, 1988a , 1988b ) Upper Extremity Movement Patterns  Level 1 Push and reach to bilateral push. One hand is placed on the support surface beside the pelvis. The other arm reaches across the

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Jake A. Melaro, Ramzi M. Majaj, Douglas W. Powell, Paul DeVita and Max R. Paquette

, Watertown, MA) were used to obtain 3-dimensional (3D) kinematics and GRFs, respectively, during walking. The 3D kinematics were tracked using retroreflective markers applied to the pelvis and right leg of each participant. Thermoplastic shells with at least 3 noncollinear markers were secured to the pelvis

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

, neurological disease, musculoskeletal dysfunction of the lumbar spine or pelvis, or claustrophobia were recruited and randomly assigned to the ST or EMS group (Figure  1 and Table  1 ). Participants with cardiac pacemakers or other electronic implants were excluded from the EMS group. Individuals who had an