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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

) Walking speed, m/s 1.25 (0.19) 1.17 (0.18) 1.34 (0.16) A set of sixty-four 12.7-mm diameter retroreflective markers were adhered to participants’ feet, legs, pelvis, torso, head, and arms to define anatomical landmarks and track segment motion. 22 Participants performed 8 overground walking trials across

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Marissa C. Gradoz, Lauren E. Bauer, Terry L. Grindstaff and Jennifer J. Bagwell

a barrier to further movement 11 or compensation with further movement as determined by the examiner. It was expected that the examiner would detect a capsular end feel. Visual observation was used to detect compensations. If participants demonstrated lateral trunk or pelvis obliquity or trunk

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

Categories for Task of Rising from a Supine to a Standing Position (Adapted from Marsala & VanSant, 1998 ; Vansant, 1988a , 1988b ) Upper Extremity Movement Patterns  Level 1 Push and reach to bilateral push. One hand is placed on the support surface beside the pelvis. The other arm reaches across the

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Katie A. Conway, Randall G. Bissette and Jason R. Franz

displacement of the subjects’ pelvis. FCU indicates functional capacity utilized. Reduced mechanical output of the plantarflexor muscles during push-off, and thus reduced propulsive forces, are hallmark biomechanical features of elderly gait as well as gait pathology, such as that following a stroke. 2 , 3

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Ui-Jae Hwang, Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-A Kim, Jun-Hee Kim and Oh-Yun Kwon

, neurological disease, musculoskeletal dysfunction of the lumbar spine or pelvis, or claustrophobia were recruited and randomly assigned to the ST or EMS group (Figure  1 and Table  1 ). Participants with cardiac pacemakers or other electronic implants were excluded from the EMS group. Individuals who had an

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Abbigail Ristow, Matthew Besch, Drew Rutherford and Thomas W. Kernozek

Wisconsin–La Crosse. Procedures Prior to any activity, 47 reflective markers were placed on each participant. 31 These markers were adhered to tight fitting clothing or onto the participant’s skin on their head, trunk, pelvis, and upper-extremities and lower-extremities. Marker placements included 4

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Cherice N. Hughes-Oliver, Kathryn A. Harrison, D.S. Blaise Williams III and Robin M. Queen

medial and lateral first and fifth metatarsal heads) and segment tracking (calcaneus, shank, thigh, and pelvis) markers placed on bilateral lower extremities (Figure  1 ). The static joint markers were used to establish joint centers and segment coordinate systems for both movement tasks. The static

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Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang and Sang Chul Lee

(band) 2. Sidelying bridge with elastic suspension (frontal plane challenge) Raise the pelvis with forearm support lateral bridge position with movement of hip reciprocal flexion/extension, slightly knee flexion/extension while hanging lower extremities on elastic suspension unit with fastening clip on

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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

joint kinematics and kinetics, reflective markers were identified manually within the Qualisys workstation software (Qualisys Inc). Visual 3-D software (C-Motion, Rockville, MD) was then used to quantify 3-D kinematics and kinetics of the tibiofemoral joint. The pelvis segment was modeled as a cylinder

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Jake A. Melaro, Ramzi M. Majaj, Douglas W. Powell, Paul DeVita and Max R. Paquette

, Watertown, MA) were used to obtain 3-dimensional (3D) kinematics and GRFs, respectively, during walking. The 3D kinematics were tracked using retroreflective markers applied to the pelvis and right leg of each participant. Thermoplastic shells with at least 3 noncollinear markers were secured to the pelvis