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Tzu-Chieh Liao, Joyce H. Keyak and Christopher M. Powers

joint kinematics and kinetics, reflective markers were identified manually within the Qualisys workstation software (Qualisys Inc). Visual 3-D software (C-Motion, Rockville, MD) was then used to quantify 3-D kinematics and kinetics of the tibiofemoral joint. The pelvis segment was modeled as a cylinder

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Jerraco L. Johnson, Mary E. Rudisill, Peter A. Hastie and Julia Sassi

trunk action occurs, it accompanies the forward thrust of the arm by flexing forward at the hips. Preparatory extension sometimes precedes forward hip flexion. Step 2 Upper trunk rotation or total trunk (“block”) rotation. The spine and pelvis rotate away from the intended line of flight and then

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John H. Hollman, Tyler A. Berling, Ellen O. Crum, Kelsie M. Miller, Brent T. Simmons and James W. Youdas

distal calf and secured to the plinth. An additional strap was secured around the pelvis to stabilize the back and pelvis and minimize utilization of extraneous muscles during MVIC testing. Participants flexed their knee isometrically against resistance at approximately 20° of knee flexion. Three 7

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Shelby A. Peel, Lauren E. Schroeder, Zachary A. Sievert and Joshua T. Weinhandl

plates with 4 retroreflective marker clusters were attached to the torso and pelvis, as well as bilateral thighs, shanks, and heels of the shoes for segment tracking during motion trials. Once markers were attached in the proper locations, a 3-second standing calibration trial was collected. Calibration

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Orges Lena, Jasemin Todri, Ardita Todri, José Luis Martínez Gil and Maria Gomez Gallego

period, the postural treatment of athletes with LBP was modified; it was addressed by changing the position of the pelvis in 90° flexion, with the knees in 180° maintained by the therapist associated with deep diaphragmatic breathing, and the patient always lying supine in bed therapy. More specifically

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Mohammad H. Izadi Farhadi, Foad Seidi, Hooman Minoonejad and Abbey C. Thomas

pelvis kinematics with mode of locomotion . Gait Posture . 2009 ; 29 ( 3 ): 494 – 498 . PubMed ID: 19124245 doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2008.11.011 2. Been E , Kalichman L . Lumbar lordosis . Spine J . 2014 ; 14 ( 1 ): 87 – 97 . PubMed ID: 24095099 doi: 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.07.464 24095099 3

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Yumeng Li, He Wang and Kathy J. Simpson

the trunk, pelvis, and lower extremity of the participants. Locations of the markers were collected by a 7-camera motion capture system (Vicon Motion System Ltd, Oxford, United Kingdom) at 120 Hz. The ground reaction forces (GRFs) were measured by 2 force plates (Bertec Corporation, Columbus, OH) at

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Whitney Williams and Noelle M. Selkow

so when imbalances occur, alterations in mechanical alignment and load affect the kinetic chain. For example, muscle tightness of the hamstrings pulls the ipsilateral innominate bone of the pelvis posteriorly, shortening the abdominal muscles. In return, the erector spinae and hip flexors become

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Chad Van Ramshorst and Woochol Joseph Choi

back, pelvis, knee, ankle, and foot, 4 – 6 , 14 – 18 and the pathology specific to the knee may include stress fractures, patellofemoral syndrome, muscle strains, and ligament sprains. 5 , 15 – 17 Although no research data are available to provide further understanding of the cause of these injuries

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Roel De Ridder, Tine Willems, Jos Vanrenterghem, Ruth Verrelst, Cedric De Blaiser and Philip Roosen

landing, they had to place their hands immediately on their pelvis and maintain balance for at least 5 seconds. For the actual testing procedure, 5 successful trials were registered for each of the 2 jump tasks. Trials were discarded if participants did not “stick” the landing, removed their hands from