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Michael J. Hartman, Brandon Clark, Debra A. Bemben, J. Lon Kilgore and Michael G. Bemben

Context:

Many elite athletes use increased daily training frequencies as a means to increase training load without substantial published literature to support this practice.

Purpose:

To compare the physiological responses to twice- and once-daily training sessions with similar training volumes.

Methods:

Ten nationally competitive male weightlifters (age 20.5 ± 1.2 y, body mass 92.9 ± 23.6 kg, training history 5.5 ± 1.5 y) were matched on body mass and training experience, then randomly assigned to train either once or twice daily for 3 wk. Isometric knee-extension strength (ISO), muscle cross-sectional area, vertical-jump peak power, resting hormone concentrations, neuromuscular activation (EMG), and weightlifting performance were obtained before and after the experimental training period.

Results:

All dependent measures before the training intervention were similar for both groups. A 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA did not reveal any significant main effects (group or trial) or interaction effects (group × trial) for any of the dependent variables. There were also no significant group differences when parameters were expressed as percentage change, but the twice-daily training group had a greater percentage change in ISO (+5.1% vs +3.2%), EMG (+20.3% vs +9.1%), testosterone (+10.5% vs +6.4%), and testosterone:cortisol ratio (−10.5% vs +1.3%) than did the once-daily training group.

Conclusions:

There were no additional benefits from increased daily training frequency in national-level male weightlifters, but the increase in ISO and EMG activity for the twice-daily group might provide some rationale for dividing training load in an attempt to reduce the risk of overtraining.

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Martin Buchheit, Bachar Haydar, Karim Hader, Pierre Ufland and Said Ahmaidi

Purpose:

To examine physiological responses to submaximal feld running with changes of direction (COD), and to compare two approaches to assess running economy (RE) with COD, ie, during square-wave (SW) and incremental (INC) exercises.

Methods:

Ten male team-sport athletes performed, in straight-line or over 20 m shuttles, one maximal INC and four submaximal SW (45, 60, 75 and 90% of the velocity associated with maximal pulmonary O2 uptake [vVO2pmax]). Pulmonary (VO2p) and gastrocnemius (VO2m) O2 uptake were computed for all tests. For both running mode, RE was estimated as the O2 cost per kilogram of bodyweight, per meter of running during all SW and INC.

Results:

Compared with straight-line runs, shuttle runs were associated with higher VO2p (eg, 33 ± 6 vs 37 ± 5 mL O2·min–1·kg–1 at 60%, P < .01) and VO2m (eg, 1.1 ± 0.5 vs 1.3 ± 0.8 mL O2·min–1·100 g–1 at 60%, P = .18, Cohen’s d = 0.32). With COD, RE was impaired during SW (0.26 ± 0.02 vs 0.24 ± 0.03 mL O2·kg–1·m–1, P < .01) and INC (0.23 ± 0.04 vs 0.16 ± 0.03 mL O2·kg–1·m–1, P < .001). For both SW and INC tests, the changes in RE with COD were related to height (eg, r = .56 [90%CL, 0.01;0.85] for SW) and weekly training/competitive volume (eg, r = –0.58 [–0.86;–0.04] for SW). For both running modes, RE calculated from INC was better than that from SW (both P < .001).

Conclusion:

Although RE is impaired during feld running with COD, team-sport players of shorter stature and/or presenting greater training/competitive volumes may present a lower RE deterioration with COD. Present results do not support the use of INC to assess RE in the feld, irrespective of running mode.

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Covariate Influence of Muscle Mass on Isokinetic Peak Torque in High School Wrestlers Terry J. Housh * Jeffrey R. Stout * Dona J. Housh * Glen O. Johnson * 5 1995 7 2 176 182 10.1123/pes.7.2.176 Physiological Responses to Prolonged Exercise in Premenarcheal and Adult Females Thomas W. Rowland

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Digest Digest Walter E. Davis Boni Boswell Allen W. Burton Stephen A. Butterfield Pat DiRocco Susan J. Hall Gary Kamen Jeff McCubbin Wayne Munson Terry L. Rizzo 4 1987 4 2 87 93 10.1123/apaq.4.2.87 Research Physiological Responses to Different Cranking Rates during Submaximal

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Rainbolt 4 1988 5 2 108 119 10.1123/apaq.5.2.108 Accessibility and Usability of Selected Weight Training Systems Ralph W. Smith * Tammy J. Buckley 4 1988 5 2 120 129 10.1123/apaq.5.2.120 Physiological Responses of Quadriplegic and Able-Bodied Men during Exercise at the Same VO 2 Stephen F. Figoni

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Friend Jeffrey J. Martin * Kerry Smith * 10 2002 19 4 472 482 10.1123/apaq.19.4.472 Construct Validity of the Test of Gross Motor Development: A Cross-Validation Approach Christina Evaggelinou * Nikolaos Tsigilis * Areti Papa * 10 2002 19 4 483 495 10.1123/apaq.19.4.483 Physiological Responses

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Physiological Responses to Maximal Graded Exercise Fredric Goss * Robert Robertson * Steve Riechman * Robert Zoeller * Ibrahim Dabayebeh * Niall Moyna * Nicholas Boer * Jennifer Peoples * Kenneth Metz * 3 2001 11 11 1 1 53 53 62 62 10.1123/ijsnem.11.1.53 Effectiveness of Glycerol as a

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States and Physiological Responses to Different Types of Motivational General Imagery Jennifer Cumming * Tom Olphin * Michelle Law * 10 2007 29 5 629 644 10.1123/jsep.29.5.629 Testing Self-Determined Motivation as a Mediator of the Relationship between Psychological Needs and Affective and

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and Physiological Response for Prepubescents, Adolescents, and Adults Stanley P. Sady * Victor L. Katch * Kris Berg * John Villanacci * 2 1989 1 1 54 63 10.1123/pes.1.1.54 Plasma Somatomedin–C in 8- to 10-Year-Old Swimmers Barbara A. Denison * Victor Ben-Ezra * 2 1989 1 1 64 72 10.1123/pes

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Methods Used for Quantifying Internal Training Load in Women Soccer Players Helen Alexiou * Aaron J. Coutts * 9 2008 3 3 320 330 10.1123/ijspp.3.3.320 Physiological Responses to Cold Water Immersion Following Cycling in the Heat Shona L. Halson * Marc J. Quod * David T. Martin * Andrew S