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Kerry McGawley and Hans-Christer Holmberg

Purpose:

Cross-country-ski races place complex demands on athletes, with events lasting between approximately 3 min and 2 h. The aim of the current study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic measures derived from a short time trial (TT) between male and female skiers using diagonal cross-country skiing.

Methods:

Twenty-four highly trained cross-country skiers (12 male and 12 female, age 17.4 ± 1.4 y, body mass 68.2 ± 8.9 kg, height 174 ± 8 cm) participated. The submaximal VO2–speed relationship and VO2max were derived from an incremental ramp test to exhaustion (RAMP), while the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), peak VO2, and performance time were measured during a 600-m TT.

Results:

The female skiers took longer to complete the TT than the males (209 ± 9 s vs 166 ± 7 s, P < .001) and exhibited a lower relative anaerobic contribution (20% ± 4% vs 24% ± 3%, P = .015) and a higher fractional utilization of VO2max (84% ± 4% vs 79% ± 5%, P = .007) than males. Although there was no significant difference in AOD between the sexes (40.9 ± 9.5 and 47.3 ± 7.4 mL/kg for females and males, respectively; P = .079), the mean difference ± 90% confidence intervals of 6.4 ± 6.0 mL/kg reflected a likely practical difference (ES = 0.72). The peak VO2 during the TT was significantly higher than VO2max during the RAMP for all participants combined (62.3 ± 6.8 vs 60.5 ± 7.2 mL · kg−1 · min−1, P = .011), and the mean difference ± 90% confidence intervals of 1.8 ± 1.1 mL · kg−1 · min−1 reflected a possible practical difference (ES = 0.25).

Conclusions:

These results show that performance and physiological responses to a self-paced TT lasting approximately 3 min differ between sexes. In addition, a TT may provide a valid measure of VO2max.

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Stephen Seiler and Øystein Sylta

The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses and perceived exertion among well-trained cyclists (n = 63) performing 3 different high-intensity interval-training (HIIT) prescriptions differing in work-bout duration and accumulated duration but all prescribed with maximal session effort. Subjects (male, mean ± SD 38 ± 8 y, VO2peak 62 ± 6 mL · kg–1 · min–1) completed up to 24 HIIT sessions over 12 wk as part of a training-intervention study. Sessions were prescribed as 4 × 16, 4 × 8, or 4 × 4 min with 2-min recovery periods (8 sessions of each prescription, balanced over time). Power output, HR, and RPE were collected during and after each work bout. Session RPE was reported after each session. Blood lactate samples were collected throughout the 12 wk. Physiological and perceptual responses during >1400 training sessions were analyzed. HIIT sessions were performed at 95% ± 5%, 106% ± 5%, and 117% ± 6% of 40-min time-trial power during 4 × 16-, 4 × 8-, and 4 × 4-min sessions, respectively, with peak HR in each work bout averaging 89% ± 2%, 91% ± 2%, and 94% ± 2% HRpeak. Blood lactate concentrations were 4.7 ± 1.6, 9.2 ± 2.4, and 12.7 ± 2.7 mmol/L. Despite the common prescription of maximal session effort, RPE and sRPE increased with decreasing accumulated work duration (AWD), tracking relative HR. Only 8% of 4 × 16-min sessions reached RPE 19–20, vs 61% of 4 × 4-min sessions. The authors conclude that within the HIIT duration range, performing at “maximal session effort” over a reduced AWD is associated with higher perceived exertion both acutely and postexercise. This may have important implications for HIIT prescription choices.

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Covariate Influence of Muscle Mass on Isokinetic Peak Torque in High School Wrestlers Terry J. Housh * Jeffrey R. Stout * Dona J. Housh * Glen O. Johnson * 5 1995 7 2 176 182 10.1123/pes.7.2.176 Physiological Responses to Prolonged Exercise in Premenarcheal and Adult Females Thomas W. Rowland

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Rainbolt 4 1988 5 2 108 119 10.1123/apaq.5.2.108 Accessibility and Usability of Selected Weight Training Systems Ralph W. Smith * Tammy J. Buckley 4 1988 5 2 120 129 10.1123/apaq.5.2.120 Physiological Responses of Quadriplegic and Able-Bodied Men during Exercise at the Same VO 2 Stephen F. Figoni

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Digest Digest Walter E. Davis Boni Boswell Allen W. Burton Stephen A. Butterfield Pat DiRocco Susan J. Hall Gary Kamen Jeff McCubbin Wayne Munson Terry L. Rizzo 4 1987 4 2 87 93 10.1123/apaq.4.2.87 Research Physiological Responses to Different Cranking Rates during Submaximal

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States and Physiological Responses to Different Types of Motivational General Imagery Jennifer Cumming * Tom Olphin * Michelle Law * 10 2007 29 5 629 644 10.1123/jsep.29.5.629 Testing Self-Determined Motivation as a Mediator of the Relationship between Psychological Needs and Affective and

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Physiological Responses to Maximal Graded Exercise Fredric Goss * Robert Robertson * Steve Riechman * Robert Zoeller * Ibrahim Dabayebeh * Niall Moyna * Nicholas Boer * Jennifer Peoples * Kenneth Metz * 3 2001 11 11 1 1 53 53 62 62 10.1123/ijsnem.11.1.53 Effectiveness of Glycerol as a

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Friend Jeffrey J. Martin * Kerry Smith * 10 2002 19 4 472 482 10.1123/apaq.19.4.472 Construct Validity of the Test of Gross Motor Development: A Cross-Validation Approach Christina Evaggelinou * Nikolaos Tsigilis * Areti Papa * 10 2002 19 4 483 495 10.1123/apaq.19.4.483 Physiological Responses

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and Physiological Response for Prepubescents, Adolescents, and Adults Stanley P. Sady * Victor L. Katch * Kris Berg * John Villanacci * 2 1989 1 1 54 63 10.1123/pes.1.1.54 Plasma Somatomedin–C in 8- to 10-Year-Old Swimmers Barbara A. Denison * Victor Ben-Ezra * 2 1989 1 1 64 72 10.1123/pes

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Methods Used for Quantifying Internal Training Load in Women Soccer Players Helen Alexiou * Aaron J. Coutts * 9 2008 3 3 320 330 10.1123/ijspp.3.3.320 Physiological Responses to Cold Water Immersion Following Cycling in the Heat Shona L. Halson * Marc J. Quod * David T. Martin * Andrew S