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Editorial Editorial Lauriece L. Zittel 7 1996 13 3 229 229 10.1123/apaq.13.3.229 Viewpoint An Activity-Based Approach to Physical Education for Preschool Children with Disabilities Martin E. Block * Timothy D. Davis * 7 1996 13 3 230 246 10.1123/apaq.13.3.230 Research Qualitative Analysis of

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Meke Mukeshi, Bernard Gutin, William Anderson, Patricia Zybert and Charles Basch

The validity of the Caltrac movement sensor for use with preschool children was assessed. Caltrac-derived values for energy expenditure were compared with those derived via laborious coding of direct observation that involved classification of the child’s videotaped activity every other 5 seconds for an hour in the day-care center or on the playground. Both Caltrac and direct observation values were expressed in kilocalories. The subjects were 20 children with a mean age of 35 months. The correlation coefficient for the total of indoor and outdoor activity was r= .62 (p<.01). The separate correlations for indoor and outdoor activity were r=.56 (p<.05) and r=.48 (p<.05), respectively. However, when the children’s weight, height, age, and sex were factored out of both the Caltrac and direct observation scores, the correlations fell to r= .25 (n.s.), r= .47 (p<.05), and r=.16 (n.s.) for the total, indoor, and outdoor activity, respectively. Thus the Caltrac seemed to record indoor activity (mainly walking) more accurately than it recorded the more varied playground movements, casting doubt on its value as a means of measuring physical activity in children 2-3 years of age.

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Daryl L. Siedentop

Background:

Schools must play a central role in combating the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and youths. This cannot be achieved without more robust policy and funding programs at both federal and state levels.

Methods:

Reviews of meta-analyses were used to assess the efficacy of improving PA/MVPA through interventions in school physical education programs. Individual research studies were reviewed to assess the efficacy of improving PA/MVPA in preschool settings, recess, and classroom activity breaks. Legislation at the federal and state levels was reviewed along with surveillance and accountability mechanisms at the state level.

Results:

Physical education interventions produce improvements in PA/MVPA if protocols relating to use of time are followed. PA/MVPA in recess can be increased through careful planning for attractive activity opportunities on carefully designed playgrounds. Classroom activity breaks provide important PA/MVPA daily and improve student on-task behavior.

Conclusions:

Federal legislation is needed to provide guidelines and financial support for states to improve the quantity and quality of PA in school programs. States need to develop clear expectations for quantity and quality of PA programs in schools, surveillance systems to monitor district compliance in meeting those expectations, and an accountability system aimed at ensuring that state expectations are being met with assistance for districts that do not meet expectations.

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Michaela A. Schenkelberg, Richard R. Rosenkranz, George A. Milliken and David A. Dzewaltowski

Background:

Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may be at greater risk for not meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines than neurotypical children (NT). The purpose of this study was to explore setting (free play versus organized) and social group composition influences on PA of children with ASD during summer camp.

Methods:

Data were collected on 6 ASD and 6 NT boys (aged 5 to 6 years) attending an inclusive summer camp. During free play and organized activity, research assistants observed the camp’s social environment and children’s PA using a modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity of Children—Preschool version.

Results:

In free play, children with ASD spent significantly less time in Moderate-Vigorous PA (MVPA) while with a peer (1.2%), compared with a peer group (11.5%) or alone (13.2%). They demonstrated significantly more Light-Moderate-Vigorous PA (LMVPA) while in a solitary social context (68.2%) compared with alone with an adult (25.8%), alone with a peer (34.8%), or with a peer group (28.2%). No significant differences were noted during organized activity.

Conclusion:

Features of the social environment may influence PA levels of children with ASD. Specifically, certain social group contexts may be more PA-promoting than others depending on the setting.

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Kelli L. Cain, James F. Sallis, Terry L. Conway, Delfien Van Dyck and Lynn Calhoon

Background:

In 2005, investigators convened by the National Cancer Institute recommended development of standardized protocols for accelerometer use and reporting decision rules in articles. A literature review was conducted to document accelerometer methods and decision rule reporting in youth physical activity articles from 2005−2010.

Methods:

Nine electronic databases identified 273 articles that measured physical activity and/or sedentary behavior using the most-used brand of accelerometer (ActiGraph). Six key methods were summarized by age group (preschool, children, and adolescents) and trends over time were examined.

Results:

Studies using accelerometers more than doubled from 2005−2010. Methods included 2 ActiGraph models, 6 epoch lengths, 6 nonwear definitions, 13 valid day definitions, 8 minimum wearing day thresholds, 12 moderate-intensity physical activity cut points, and 11 sedentary cut points. Child studies showed the most variation in methods and a trend toward more variability in cut points over time. Decision rule reporting improved, but only 54% of papers reported on all methods.

Conclusion:

The increasing diversity of methods used to process and score accelerometer data for youth precludes comparison of results across studies. Decision rule reporting is inconsistent, and trends indicate declining standardization of methods. A methodological research agenda and consensus process are proposed.

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Neil Anderson and Chris Button

Control of static posture is constrained by multiple sensory inputs, motor ability, and task constraints. Development of static postural control across the lifespan can be analyzed effectively using nonlinear analyses of center of pressure (CoP) time series, including approximate and sample entropy. In this paper, the key findings from studies using nonlinear analysis tools are reviewed to describe the development of postural control. Preschool children learn to adopt relatively unstable postures (e.g., standing) in which the regularity of CoP initially increases as a consequence of restricting mechanical degrees of freedom. As children age, CoP regularity decreases as degrees of freedom are released, thus enabling a more functional, adaptable type of postural control. Changes to sensory inputs or task constraints also affect the regularity of CoP sway. For example, removing vision, adding vibration, or imposing dual-task conditions affect performer’s CoP regularity differently. One limitation of approximate and sample entropy analysis is the influence of different input parameters on the output and subsequent interpretation. Ongoing refinement to entropy analysis tools concern determining appropriate values for the length of sequence to be matched and the tolerance level used with CoP data.

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Leigh M. Vanderloo, Patricia Tucker, Ali Ismail and Melissa M. van Zandvoort

Background:

Preschoolers spend a substantial portion of their day in childcare; therefore, these centers are an ideal venue to encourage healthy active behaviors. It is important that provinces’/territories’ childcare legislation encourage physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to review Canadian provincial/territorial childcare legislation regarding PA participation. Specifically, this review sought to 1) appraise each provincial/territorial childcare regulation for PA requirements, 2) compare such regulations with the NASPE PA guidelines, and 3) appraise these regulations regarding PA infrastructure.

Methods:

A review of all provincial/territorial childcare legislation was performed. Each document was reviewed separately by 2 researchers, and the PA regulations were coded and summarized. The specific provincial/territorial PA requirements (eg, type/frequency of activity) were compared with the NASPE guidelines.

Results:

PA legislation for Canadian childcare facilities varies greatly. Eight of the thirteen provinces/territories provide PA recommendations; however, none provided specific time requirements for daily PA. All provinces/territories did require access to an outdoor play space.

Conclusion:

All Canadian provinces/territories lack specific PA guidelines for childcare facilities. The development, implementation, and enforcement of national PA legislation for childcare facilities may aid in tackling the childhood obesity epidemic and assist childcare staff in supporting and encouraging PA participation.

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Stacy A. Clemes and Stuart J.H. Biddle

Background:

Pedometers are increasingly being used to measure physical activity in children and adolescents. This review provides an overview of common measurement issues relating to their use.

Methods:

Studies addressing the following measurement issues in children/adolescents (aged 3−18 years) were included: pedometer validity and reliability, monitoring period, wear time, reactivity, and data treatment and reporting. Pedometer surveillance studies in children/adolescents (aged: 4−18 years) were also included to enable common measurement protocols to be highlighted.

Results:

In children > 5 years, pedometers provide a valid and reliable, objective measure of ambulatory activity. Further evidence is required on pedometer validity in preschool children. Across all ages, optimal monitoring frames to detect habitual activity have yet to be determined; most surveillance studies use 7 days. It is recommended that standardized wear time criteria are established for different age groups, and that wear times are reported. As activity varies between weekdays and weekend days, researchers interested in habitual activity should include both types of day in surveillance studies. There is conflicting evidence on the presence of reactivity to pedometers.

Conclusions:

Pedometers are a suitable tool to objectively assess ambulatory activity in children (> 5 years) and adolescents. This review provides recommendations to enhance the standardization of measurement protocols.

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Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

Background: Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for global mortality and a contributor to the increase in overweight and obesity. The Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity identified the need for guidance on physical activity, particularly for early childhood (<5 y), a period of rapid physical and cognitive development. Methods: The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the first global guidelines on physical activity, sedentary, and sleep behaviors, building upon high-quality systematic reviews. The WHO guideline process is a rigorous, systematic, and transparent method for the development of recommendations, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Evidence to Decision framework. It takes into consideration the strength of the evidence as well as values and preferences, benefits and harms, equity and human rights. Results: The authors summarize the first global guidelines on time spent in physical activity, sedentary behavior (including screen time and time spent restrained), and sleep patterns in infants (birth to 1 y of age), toddlers (1–2.9 y of age), and preschoolers (3–4.9 y of age). Conclusions: WHO is actively disseminating and supporting implementation of these guidelines by national adoption and adaptation, through links with early childhood development and the Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018–2030.

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Leah E. Robinson, Kara K. Palmer and Sean K. Meehan

Background:

This study examined the effects of three different treatment doses of a motor skill intervention (the Children’s Health Activity Motor Program [CHAMP]) on changes in preschoolers’ motor performance.

Methods:

Onehundred and nine children were divided into one of four groups: control and three CHAMP dosage groups: T1, 660 min; T2, 720 min; or T3, 900 min. Motor performance was assessed before and after the intervention using the Test of Gross Motor Development, 2nd Edition (TGMD-2). We used a 2 (time) × 4 (treatment) mixed-measures ANOVA to determine interaction and main effects. Significant interactions were decomposed using separate one-way between groups ANOVAs at each time point followed by Tukey’s post hoc tests.

Results:

Results revealed a significant time × treatment interaction (F 3, 100 = 16.79; p < .001). There were no differences across treatment groups before the intervention (F 3, 100 = .075, p < .90), but after the intervention the control group had significantly lower TMGD-2 scores compared with all three CHAMP intervention groups (F 3, 100 = 9.92, p < .001, all post hoc tests, p < .001). Posttreatment differences can be attributed to greater improvements in motor performance following the CHAMP intervention regardless of specific dosage.

Conclusions:

Motor performance scores for all children who completed CHAMP significantly improved.