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Saija Karinkanta, Ritva Nupponen, Ari Heinonen, Matti Pasanen, Harri Sievänen, Kirsti Uusi-Rasi, Mikael Fogelholm and Pekka Kannus

This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the effects of exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and fear of falling (FoF) among 149 home-dwelling older women. The 12-mo exercise program was intended to reduce the risk of falls and fractures. HRQoL was assessed by the RAND-36 Survey, and FoF, with a visual analog scale, at baseline, 12 mo, and 24 mo. On all RAND-36 scales, the scores indicated better health and well-being. The exercise had hardly any effect on HRQoL; only the general health score improved slightly compared with controls at 12 mo (p = .019), but this gain was lost at 24 mo. FoF decreased in both groups during the intervention with no between-groups difference at 12 or 24 mo. In conclusion, despite beneficial physiological changes, the exercise intervention showed rather limited effects on HRQoL and FoF among relatively high-functioning older women. This modest result may be partly because of insufficient responsiveness of the assessment instruments used.

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Jennifer L. Etnier

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic illness characterized by clinical cognitive impairment. A behavioral strategy that is being explored in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease is physical activity. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effects of physical activity for cognitively normal older adults supports that physical activity benefits cognitive performance. Evidence from prospective studies supports a protective effect of physical activity with reductions in the risk of cognitive decline ranging from 28% to 45%. RCTs with cognitively impaired older adults also generally support positive effects with greater benefits evident for aerobic interventions. Research examining the potential moderating role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) has yielded mixed results, but the majority of the studies support that physical activity most benefits those who are at greatest genetic risk of Alzheimer's disease. Future directions for research are considered with an emphasis on the need for additional funding to support this promising area of research.

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Mindy Millard-Stafford, Jeffrey S. Becasen, Michael W. Beets, Allison J. Nihiser, Sarah M. Lee and Janet E. Fulton

A systematic review of literature was conducted to examine the association between changes in health-related fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity and muscular strength/endurance) and chronic disease risk factors in overweight and/or obese youth. Studies published from 2000–2010 were included if the physical activity intervention was a randomized controlled trial and reported changes in fitness and health outcomes by direction and significance (p < .05) of the effect. Aerobic capacity improved in 91% and muscular fitness improved in 82% of measures reported. Nearly all studies (32 of 33) reported improvement in at least one fitness test. Changes in outcomes related to adiposity, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and mental/emotional health improved in 60%, 32%, 53%, 41%, and 33% of comparisons studied, respectively. In conclusion, overweight and obese youth can improve physical fitness across a variety of test measures. When fitness improves, beneficial health effects are observed in some, but not all chronic disease risk factors.

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Eduardo L. Caputo, Paulo H. Ferreira, Manuela L. Ferreira, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Marlos R. Domingues, Debra Shirley and Marcelo C. Silva

were randomly enrolled in an intervention group of a randomized controlled trial nested in the cohort study were excluded from analysis. This trial studies the effects of an exercise program during pregnancy on mother and child health outcomes. 18 Descriptive data were presented as total frequencies

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Johannes Raabe, Katrin Schmidt, Johannes Carl and Oliver Höner

.e., country the intervention was conducted), setting (i.e., PE or youth sport), study design (i.e., cluster randomized controlled trials or controlled trials), sample characteristics (i.e., number and age of participants, experience of social agents), intervention characteristics (i.e., content, duration, and

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Emma E. Sypes, Genevieve Newton and Zakkoyya H. Lewis

weight loss in interventions. As published to date, numerous randomized controlled trials have addressed this question by incorporating EAMSs into their intervention design. However, the characteristics of these interventions vary widely, with differences observed in the type of technology, target

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

changes in outcomes. The study was a 12-week pilot randomized control trial comparing supervised community-based exercise ( n  = 36) with a wait-list control ( n  = 18) in veterans (aged ≥60 years) meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. The exercise was multimodal (e.g., aerobic, strength, flexibility

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Stephanie G. Kerrigan, Evan M. Forman, Mitesh Patel, Dave Williams, Fengqing Zhang, Ross D. Crosby and Meghan L. Butryn

and financial incentives: a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial to increase adults’ physical activity . BMC Public Health . 2017 ; 17 : 286 . PubMed ID: 28356097 doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4197-8 10.1186/s12889-017-4197-8 28356097 15. Adams MA , Sallis JF , Norman GJ , Hovell MF

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Marina Arkkukangas, Anne Söderlund, Staffan Eriksson and Ann-Christin Johansson

suitable alternative for older adults who are beginning to develop disabilities ( Hellström et al., 2013 ). In a recently conducted randomized controlled trial, the short-term effects from having participated in a fall-prevention home-based exercise program were evaluated ( Arkkukangas, Soderlund, Eriksson

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Lauren T. Ptomey, Eric D. Vidoni, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Michael A. Thompson, Joseph R. Sherman, Anna M. Gorczyca, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

reports 4.4, , 403 -407. 10.3892/br.2016.607 Connell , C.M. , & Janevic , M.R. ( 2009 ). Effects of a telephone-based exercise intervention for dementia caregiving wives: A randomized controlled trial . Journal of Applied Gerontology, 28 ( 2 ), 171 – 194 . PubMed ID: 21709757 doi:10